A brief chronology of the Etruscans
「1000-725 BCE: the Villanovan period 」
named after the archaeological type site of Villanovan, nearBologna, where the Early Iron Age manifestation of the Etruscans was first identified. Most of the evidence comes from the characteristic Villanovan cemeteries, virtual “urn fields” with single burials characterized by the rite of the cremation, “biconical” or hut urns, and assemblages of tomb goods that mark the status of the individuals. The period saw the beginning of craft production and possibly the first contact with the Phoenicians. The Villanovan period corresponds roughly to the Geometric period inGreece, and indeed the Villanovan objects are adorned with the geometric decoration, although there is no direct evidence linking this style toGreece. In 750 BCE, the first Greek colony was established in the west (in thebayofNaples), and at about this time the alphabet was borrowed from the Euboean Greeks who had just adopted it from the Phoenicians.