【读遍世界❤ 美文共享】思考,快与慢(1)

duck945 (Lira) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-12-31 13:50 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

    我们的大脑有快与慢两种作决定的方式。常用的无意识的“系统1”依赖情感、记忆和经验迅速作出判断,它见闻广博,使我们能够迅速对眼前的情况作出反应。但系统1也很容易上当,它固守“眼见即为事实”的原则,任由损失厌恶和乐观偏见之类的错觉引导我们作出错误的选择。有意识的“系统2”通过调动注意力来分析和解决问题,并作出决定,它比较慢,不容易出错,但它很懒惰,经常走捷径,直接采纳系统1的直觉型判断结果。

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    To observe your mind in automatic mode, glance at the image below.

Figure 1

    Your experience as you look at the woman’s face seamlessly combines what we normally call seeing and intuitive thinking. As surely and quickly as you saw that the young woman’s hair is dark, you knew she is angry. Furthermore, what you saw extended into the future. You sensed that this woman is about to say some very unkind words, probably in a loud and strident voice. A premonition of what she was going to do next came to mind automatically and effortlessly. You did not intend to assess her mood or to anticipate what she might do, and your reaction to the picture did not have the feel of something you did. It just happened to you. It was an instance of fast thinking.

    Now look at the following problem:

    17 × 24

    You knew immediately that this is a multiplication problem, and probably knew that you could solve it, with paper and pencil, if not without. You also had some vague intuitive knowledge of the range of possible results. You would be quick to recognize that both 12,609 and 123 are implausible. Without spending some time on the problem, however, you would not be certain that the answer is not 568. A precise solution did not come to mind, and you felt that you could choose whether or not to engage in the computation. If you have not done so yet, you should attempt the multiplication problem now, completing at least part of it.

    You experienced slow thinking as you proceeded through a sequence of steps. 

    Two Systems Psychologists have been intensely interested for several decades in the two modes of thinking evoked by the picture of the angry woman and by the multiplication problem, and have offered many labels for them. I adopt terms originally proposed by the psychologists Keith Stanovich and Richard West, and will refer to two systems in the mind, System 1 and System 2.

    System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control.

    System 2 allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. The operations of System 2 are often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice, and concentration.



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