Today, we’re going to look at ways of discussing a topic. When you’re writing or speaking, you can present facts, or you can use your opinion - but how can you tell the difference? Today we’ll find out.
We’re going to listen to a scientist talking about Vitamin D and cancer.
In the clip, see if you can hear both facts and opinions being used.
I believe that the public health problem for vitamin D deficiency is quite significant. I would estimate minimum 25% of adults in the United States, Europe and probably even in Australia are vitamin D deficient.
I mean if you think about it, over 250,000 women in the United States will develop breast cancer this year. Something like 50,000 will die. If 25% of those breast cancers could have been averted, prevented in some way, just by having a little exposure to sunlight, would have been really tremendous.
So he was talking about the links between vitamin D and cancer.
Many Australians these days are avoiding the sun, because they know it can cause skin cancer. But by avoiding the sun, they’re missing out on vitamin D – the vitamin that you get from sunshine, and this is leading to other health problems.（天天宅在家里的童鞋要常出门活动活动，进行光合作用喔！）
When you’re reading, writing or listening to an argument like this, it’s important to be able to tell the difference between statements of fact, and statements of opinion.
But how can you tell the difference?
Well, there are a number of ways you can express your opinion.
Today we’re going to look at two of these: using phrases that express an opinion; and using modal verbs.
First, let’s look at some phrases.
The key words to listen for when you’re trying to decide whether someone is talking about facts or opinions are words like believe, think, argue, feel, opinion, or view.
These vary from formal to informal.
If I was talking with my friends I might say “I think” or “I believe”
If I was in a class or tutorial, I might say “In my opinion”, or “in my view”.
But if I was writing an essay, or giving a very formal talk, I’d probably choose “it is believed”, or “it is thought”.
In formal writing, many people think you should avoid using the word ‘I’, even if you are giving an opinion.
Here’s the clip again. Listen for some of those phrases.
I believe that the public health problem for vitamin D deficiency is quite significant.
I mean if you think about it, over 250,000 women in the United States will develop breast cancer this year. Something like 50,000 will die.
Another way we can express opinions is by using modal verbs.
Model verbs express opinions and attitudes. They make statements
less certain or less definite.
They can also be used for recommending and advising.
Here are the modal verbs used for opinions:
These words signal that the speaker is giving an opinion.
Look at these examples. Can you tell which ones are facts, and which ones are opinions?
Fifty thousand will die.
Fifty thousand might die.
The second statement uses might - it is an opinion.
Here’s another one…
I do not think small amounts of sunlight increase the risk of cancer.
Small amounts of sunlight do not increase the risk of cancer.
In the first statement, you can see ‘I do not think …’. This is an opinion.
Now look at these 2 sentences:
'I believe that vitamin D deficiency might become common among adults'.
'Vitamin D deficiency will affect 25% of adults'.
The first is an opinion - 'I believe', 'might become'.
The second is a fact - 'will affect' 25% of adults.
can / could, may / might, shall/should, will / would.
情态动词的非常实用，不管是在IELTS Writing Task 2, 还是在Speaking test里都经常要用到。
当你要making suggestions,或者giving advise的时候，用should.
当要描述还未发生的possibility和probability的时候，用may or might.
当你giving opinions时，要记得常用Modal verbs.会显得很礼貌～
此外，Will / shall and would / should are also used to form future tenses（将来时）.
When making Future Predictions
about the future we have several
1. Verbs I guess // imagine // suppose // think // hope // suspect// expect
2. Modal Verbs We may // People might // There could be// It will be // It Would
If… I will // might // could…
Some Modal Verbs are used to express politeness, to be more courteous.活用情态动词以示礼貌：
Will / Would
; Can / Could
Can / will you help me please. This is a simple request.介个是粗银版…
Could / would you help me please. This is more polite.介个是文化银版…
Last night I could not go out because I had to finish my final assignment.
My supervisor said I had to finish the report by today.
近期节目传送门~ Episode1 α β Episode2 α β Episode3 α β Episode4 α