近期节目传送门~ Episode1 α β Episode2 α β Episode3 α β Episode4 α β
Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.
Today we’re going to look at a topic you’ve probably heard a lot about – global warming and the environment.
First we’re going to look at ways of brainstorming, taking notes and developing ideas.
Watch while we play some vision that contains ideas about the causes and effects of global warming …
While you watch, try to note down some of your ideas about what global warming is.
OK so you saw some ideas, and perhaps took some notes, during that clip. What were some of the ideas you saw?
What has caused global warming?
We saw gases in the air, cars, factory waste, and people cutting trees down.
So if you made those notes, you’d get an idea that these were the things causing global warming.
Now let’s listen to someone talk about the causes…
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere.
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. What else?
So what is global warming? It's the result of billions of decisions. It’s caused by
decisions made by individuals – like driving big cars rather than small cars. And it’s
caused by decisions made by corporations and nations, like dumping waste into the
Global warming is caused by about people using big cars, and people dumping waste into the atmosphere…
OK, so you’ve looked at the vision, and listened to the speaker, and you’ve made notes about some of the causes of global warming.
Now let’s look for some of the effects…
So after watching that, you might be thinking that global warming is having an effect
on weather patterns, and on nature.
Listen to the speaker…
Nature is already responding to global warming. There have been changes in global
Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up
So there’s been weather changes, and changes to the ways trees, birds and butterflies behave.
So we have a list of causes, and list of effects. You might have identified those things from a text you’ve read, or from listening to someone speak. This is how you can take notes.
Once you’ve got your notes, you need to be able to link those causes and effects in sentences.
Let’s look at a couple of different ways.
The first and most basic way is just making a sequence of statements. This can sometimes be a powerful way of making a connection between things. Listen.
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. Trees are flowering earlier.
Birds are laying eggs earlier, and butterflies are moving up hills.
From the sequence of information, we realise that birds are laying their eggs earlier because gases are making the earth warmer.
So a simple list of statements can show a cause and effect relationship.
But there are other ways too.
You can use the language of cause and effect. We can say:
Driving cars causes
There are many other word choices as well.
Driving cars leads to air pollution.
Driving cars results in air pollution.
Notice you can also turn the sentence around…
'Air pollution is caused by
'Air pollution is the result
of driving cars'.
'Air pollution is due to
I, you, he/she, it, we, they, one
this, that, these, those
my, your, his, her, their, one’s, its, our(比起德语的代词，英语算小儿科了好不好……)
The artist deposited the painting
at the National Gallery. It
became part of the gallery’s contemporary collection.
The scientists investigated the living organisms
in the previous study. They
were found to be unstable in the solution.
The historian wrote about two of the six
were remarkable and courageous people.
of that science student passed his
, who witnessed the accident, returned to her
tail around the garden.
The shark is a carnivorous (meat-eating) sea mammal. ①It
is one of the most feared fish in the ocean, having the reputation of attacking humans. There are many species that roam the great oceans of the world. ②They
vary in size and habit. Though the whale shark is considered the largest, ③it
is relatively harmless, and mainly eats small fish and plankton. Other sharks include the hammerhead, mako and bull. ④These
are fast, powerful sea animals that feed on larger fish such as mackerel, tuna and herring. The white shark, on the other hand, is the most frightening and dangerous. ⑤It
reputation because of ⑦its
size and keen sense, which enables ⑧it
to prey successfully. Since the early 1960’s, scientists have been studying sharks because of ⑨their
potential to provide the medical world with defences against diseases such as cancer and arthritis. ⑩That
would be welcomed by all.