一起烤雅思 1-5b GLOBAL WARMING

steelver (白龍) 路人甲
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发表于:2012-04-28 12:00 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
本期节目是紧密承接上期的,需要复习的童鞋请摸传送门>>
近期节目传送门~ Episode1 α β Episode2 α β Episode3 α β Episode4 α β Episode5 α


Listen to an example here …

There have been changes in global weather patterns.

Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up
hills.

So what is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions.


He’s talking about global warming.

Global warming is the result of billions of decisions.

Global warming is due to billions of decisions.


And remember we can turn the sentence around, and change the phrase:

Billions of decisions cause global warming.

Billions of decisions result in global warming.

Billions of decisions lead to global warming.


When you’re writing about causes and effects, make sure you use a variety of these kinds of phrases. There are many to choose from. You should make lists of cause and effect language, and the kinds of vocabulary you can use to describe cause and effect relationships.

Now listen to another clip.

Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up
hills.

So what is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions.


When you’re writing up your notes using cause and effect language, you’ll need to be
able to follow or track the subject of the text.

Let’s look at that now.

“What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions”.

The word ‘it’ here is called a referent. We use referents to identify and track subjects
through a conversation or a piece of writing.

If you repeat the subject too many times, your work will sound boring.

Listen to this:

The woman came into the room. The woman sat down. The woman drank her tea.

Look at how we use referents:

The woman came into the room. She sat down. She drank her tea.

When you are reading, you’ll need to be able to understand referents, and follow the subject through the text.

Other referents are this, that, these, those.

Here’s the clip again. Listen to the way the referents are used.

What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions.

The word it here refers to global warming.

What is global warming? Global warming is the result of billions of decisions.

And here’s another referent.

What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions.

You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual.


He says:
You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual.

He means:
You can’t manage global warming at the scale of the individual.

But notice how the subject changes here.

What is global warming? It’s the result of billions of individual decisions.

You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual.

Managing the atmosphere has to take place at a global level. That’s why it needs international agreements.


Managing the atmosphere has to take place at a global level.

The subject of this sentence is ‘managing the atmosphere'.

That’s why it needs international agreement.

So the 'it' here no longer refers to global warming. Now ‘it’ is referring to 'managing the atmosphere'.

That’s why managing the atmosphere needs international agreement.

When reading and writing, you must be very careful to notice when subjects change,

and to be clear about which subject is being referred to. This can be quite tricky sometime.

Next time you see a paragraph, try to highlight all the referents like:

it, this, that, these, those, he, she, they.

Then try to work out what subject they are all referring back to.

It’s a great exercise, and it will help your reading, writing and speaking skills.

And that’s all for today. Hope you keep enjoying your English studies and Study English! I’ll see you next time.

点击查看大图 ~STUDY NOTES~
今天木有Study notes,对,你木有看错,木有notes,因为Episode 5的知识点很简单,上节课讲完了……
但是题目不能少对不对……
请按序号回复,提交之前请选择“仅楼主可见”

A planet is a large, round object that travels around the sun. There are nine planets, which together comprise a part of the solar system. (1. this, these, that) include Mercury, Venus, Earth*, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Much like stars in appearance, planets differ from (2. they, them, their) in that (3. they, them, their) shine steadily, while stars twinkle. (4. this, these, those) may be the result of the light and heat that stars produce on (5. its, they, their) own, (6. this, these, that) which the planets emit is reflected light from the sun. Though the planets differ substantially in size and vary widely in terms of (7. their, its, they) surface conditions, (8. them, they, these)are similar insofar as orbital movement is concerned. All of (9. them, they, these) move in a westward direction across the sky. Astronomers have been fascinated by planets for thousands of years, but more recently have become interested in the feasibility of sustainable life on planets. Answers to (10. these, that, they) may give scientists an insight into our long-term future.
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