一起烤雅思 1-6a GREENHOUSE GASES

steelver (白龍) 路人甲
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发表于:2012-04-29 12:00 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
近期节目传送门~ Episode1 α β Episode2 α β Episode3 α β Episode4 α β Episode5 α β

GREENHOUSE GASES
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Today we're going to talk about the environment. Global warming is caused by the presence of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere. One of the worst greenhouses gases is carbon dioxide.

We're going to look at the language of cause and effect while we find out why these greenhouses gases are a problem.

The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural system out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate and we're releasing it all in about 100 years. So it's put the whole system out of balance at the moment, which has resulted in higher levels of these gases in the atmosphere.

That was Dr Roger Francey talking about the natural system. He says that the natural system is 'out of balance'.

He also talked about the causes and effects of this.

Listen for the main cause of the natural system being out of balance…

The main problem is our use of fossil fuels.

He says 'the main problem is our use of fossil fuels'.

So if we look at a table of cause and effect, we can say that 'the use of fossil fuels' is a cause, and 'the natural system out of balance' is an effect.

Listen again.

The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural system out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate and we're releasing it all in about 100 years.

So the natural system has been put out of balance by people digging up and burning coal and oil. This releases gases into the atmosphere. Coal and oil are fossil fuels.

So if we go back to the table of cause and effect, we can say that 'digging up and burning coal and oil' is another cause.

See if you can hear another effect.

The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural system out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate and we're releasing it all in about 100 years. So it's put the whole system out of balance at the moment, which has resulted in higher levels of these gases in the atmosphere.

It's put the whole system out of balance, which has resulted in higher levels of gases in the atmosphere.

So here, 'the natural system out of balance' is now a cause.

It has 'resulted in', or 'caused', higher levels of gases in the atmosphere.

This is an effect.

To express these relationships, there many different word choices.

We can use verbs like 'causes', 'leads to', 'results in'.

So we can express the relationship like this:

'A causes B', 'A leads to B', 'A results in B'.

Listen to an example here.

The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So it's put the whole system out of balance at the moment, which has resulted in higher levels of these gases in the atmosphere.

'Our use of fossil fuels has resulted in higher levels of gases.'

But we can also express the cause/effect relationship the other way round:

'Higher levels of gases are the result of our use of fossil fuels.'

Notice that we use a noun phrase here. This is very common.

We can use nouns like 'the result', 'the effect', 'the consequence'.

If we look at these effect relationships, we can say:

'B is the effect of A', 'B is the result of A', 'B is the consequence of A'.

Remember that it's always important to have a variety in your language. Make sure
you use both nouns and verbs to express causes, and effects. This will make you
written work and your speech sound more interesting.

点击查看大图 ~STUDY NOTES~
今天的Study notes要讲的是Nationalities of countries.
Learning the nationalities of countries is important and useful, especially when identifying yourself or any other group of people, and when describing personal and national characteristics. Of equal importance is using the correct form when identifying or talking about a nationality, and spelling the nationality correctly.
记住一些国家的名字灰常重要有木有,在外国友人面前读错或者拼错国名很尴尬有木有,会读很多国名地名会显得比较博识有木有……
There are 5 groups of adjectival endings which are used to form nationalities from country names, but no easy rules that tell you what ending to use with which country.
表示X国人,有5种形容词后缀,但是坑爹的英语木有简单规则来表示,很多只能死记……
In other words, the ending on the country name does not determine necessarily the adjectival form of the nationality. Therefore, it is best to memorise the country name and nationality together.

The groups are:
-(i)an -ese -i -ish -ic
and a group that includes exceptions, for example, Philippines - Filipino.(话说某次做听写的时候,被菲律宾人害惨了有木有……)

The most common form -(i)an also constitutes the largest group of adjectives, for example, Colombia – Colombian / kə'lʌmbiən /; Mexico – Mexican /mɛksɪkən/.

The noun used to describe the person from these countries is the same as the adjective.
就讲这么多,下期节目会把各国的名称做个Summary.
~>此处反白可见~测试题tips:正确答案后面都有点……<~

答题区

1、What are the 3 most widely spoken languages in the world?
2、Which two countries form their nationality with an –(i)an ending?
3、What language is spoken in Mexico?
4、What is the nationality of people from Bangkok?
5、What is the nationality of someone who speaks Portuguese?

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