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OK, so Dr Francey and his team have designed a new way of measuring one of the worst greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere: carbon dioxide.
Listen for what they're trying to find out.
We need to understand what happens in the tropics, that's where the biggest forests are and that's where some of the biggest changes are occurring in terms of human modification of those forests through conversion to agriculture and regular burning of these forests.
Our interest is not so much in that diurnal or daily variation. We're interested in what's happening on time scales of days or months or years.
They are interested in what's happening over days, months or years.
Their interest is not so much in diurnal or daily variation.
The conjunction 'or' here works to connect alternative meanings.
In this sense, 'or' means 'that is', 'I mean'.
'We're interested in diurnal, that is daily, variation.'
'We're interested in diurnal, I mean daily, variation.'
The second word defines the first. It tells the reader or listener what the more unfamiliar, technical word means.
Listen again for what diurnal means.
Our interest is not so much in that diurnal or daily variation.
He says diurnal or daily.
'Diurnal' means 'daily'.
See if you can work out the meaning of CO2 here …
"One of the main causes of global warming is CO2, or carbon dioxide."
'CO2 or carbon dioxide'
'CO2 is carbon dioxide'
When you're looking at environmental issues, like global warming and greenhouses gases, it's often necessary to be familiar these kinds of chemical terms.
You should try to learn the more common ones, like 'CO2'.
You might want to keep a copy of the 'periodic table' in your notebook. That's the list of all chemical elements and their abbreviations.
Here are some of them:
'hydrogen' is H, but 'helium' is He.
Notice that with abbreviations of elements, the first letter is always a capital, and the others are always small.
See if you can guess these ones:
'oxygen', that's O, and 'carbon' is C.
But they're not always that easy:
'lead' is Pb, and 'sodium' is Na.
OK, now let's listen to Dr Francey talk about the new CO2 measuring device…
Then we'll look at the names of countries and nationalities.
There's been interest from Korea, Japan, France and Malaysia, where the analyser could be installed on a 100metre tower on the island of Borneo.
She says there's been interest in their device from Korea, Japan, France and Malaysia.
It's important to learn and recognise the English names of the major countries of the world, their nationalities, and how to spell and pronounce these.
It's a good vocabulary exercise to make lists of these families of words.
To help you remember them, try grouping countries according to how the nationalities are formed.
Notice that they're all spelt with capital letters.
We have the '–an' group:
'Australia, Australian', 'Korea, Korean', 'Malaysia, Malaysian', 'Fiji, Fijian'.
We have the '–ese' group:
'Japan, Japanese', 'China, Chinese', 'Vietnam, Vietnamese'.
Then there's the '–i' group:
'Bangladesh, Bangladeshi', 'Kuwait, Kuwaiti'.
And some nationalities are formed in an irregular way:
'France, French', 'New Zealand, New Zealander', 'Philippines, Filipino'.
And watch the change in spelling with that one!
Why don't you start your own list of English names for countries and their people.
Some countries also take separate adjectives that you can learn along with them.
And that's all for Study English today. I'll see you next time. Bye bye.
Cambodia –Cambodian /kæm'boʊdiən/
Canada – Canadian /kə'neɪdiən/
Chile – Chilean /ʧɪ'liən/
Colombia – Colombian /kə'lʌmbiən/
Croatia – Croatian /kroʊ'eɪʃən/
Egypt – Egyptian /ə'ʤɪpʃən/
Europe – European /jurə'piən/
India – Indian /'ɪndiən/
Iran – Iranian /ɪ'reɪniən/
Italy – Italian /ɪ'tæljən/
Jordan – Jordanian /'ʤɔ'deɪniən/
Kenya – Kenyan /'kɛnjən/
Lao – Laotian /'laʊʃən/
Macedonia – Macedonian /mæsə'doʊniən/
Mexico – Mexican /mɛksɪkən/
Mongolia – Mongolian /mɒŋ'goʊliən/
Palestine – Palestinian /pælə'stɪniən/
Russia – Russian /'rʌʃən/
Saudi Arabia – Saudi Arabian /saʊdi ə'reɪbiən/ Saudi / saʊdi/
Singapore – Singaporean /sɪŋə'pɔriən/