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Today we’re going to talk about acronyms, abbreviations and names, and then we’ll do a bit of vocabulary building as well.
The boy in today’s clip is about to have a test to see whether he has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.
While you’re watching, listen for some other abbreviations.
How do you know if your child does have ADHD? An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers.
Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard’s PhD students. A computer programme will compare Xavier’s brain scan with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers. If he does have the condition, the ADHD diagnosis will be automatically triggered.
Xavier was having a test to see if he has ‘ADHD’. ‘ADHD’ is an abbreviation.
An abbreviation is the short form of a phrase or a word.
We often abbreviate phrases using the first letter of each word.
Notice that you use capitals letters for these types of abbreviations.
‘ADHD’ stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ‘ADHD’ is much quicker and easier to say, and to write.
You might recognise some of these common abbreviations:
‘UFO’ stands for ‘Unidentified Flying Object’.
‘ASAP’ means ‘As Soon As Possible’.
Other common abbreviations are:
‘PC’, ‘Personal Computer’,
‘TV’ for ‘Television’,
and ‘CD-ROM’ – that’s a ‘Compact Disc with a
Read Only Memory’!
Notice that each letter in the abbreviation is pronounced separately, but the last letter is pronounced more strongly because it carries the primary stress.
So we say ‘USA’, ‘ASAP’, ‘ABC’, and ‘TV’.
Listen for another abbreviation here.
Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard’s PhD students.
Jacques Duff is one of Richard’s PhD students.
‘PhD’ stands for Doctor of Philosophy.
Another abbreviation you’ll recognise is ‘IELTS’.
‘IELTS’ stands for ‘International English Language Testing System’.
This form of abbreviation is called an ‘acronym’.
With an acronym, we don’t pronounce the individual letters, we pronounce it as a word.
So we say ‘IELTS’, not ‘I - E - L - T - S’.
Some other examples of acronyms are:
‘AIDS’, that’s ‘Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome’,
and ‘RAM’, ‘Random Access Memory.’
Another example is ‘ASEAN’ – that stands for the ‘Association of South East Asian Nations’.
There’s one more common shortening in today’s story. Listen for whether it’s an abbreviation or an acronym.
An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers.
He says an ‘EEG’. That’s an abbreviation. We don’t pronounce it ‘eeg’, we say ‘E E G’.
‘EEG’ stands for ‘Electro- Encephalograph’.
That’s a type of brain scan, but you can see why we shorten it to EEG.
Notice that in formal academic writing, it’s necessary to write out an abbreviation in full the first time you use it.
So if you wanted to write about an EEG, you’d write it out in full the first time, and place the abbreviation in brackets, like this.
‘An Electro – Encephalograph [EEG] can help treat patients.’
After that in your paper, you can just use the abbreviation on its own.
今天的内容很简单，就是ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS