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Today we’re going to look at ways of connecting ideas. There are many ways of doing this using ‘conjunctions’, words that join.
First, let’s listen to Paul Gibson, an architect, while he takes us on a tour of his new, environmentally friendly solar house.
Well we completed it about 2 years ago, and I guess one of the interesting things about it is that it’s a fibro house and most houses I guess these days are brick veneer, whereas this is fibro on the outside, timber on the outside, but there’s bricks on the inside.
Well I guess the very high windows along the north side going down to the lower ceiling height on the south basically allows you to get a lot of sun in through these windows in winter, and the louvres, which go out, actually go to a point where the sun
can be shaded completely in summer, but they can be opened to let the sun right back into the house though winter.
This house actually has 2 north faces. There’s the north face of all the living rooms, 3 actually, and then the master bedroom has a north face and the other bedrooms also have a north face. So it’s trying to maximise what we call the aperture of the house, which is how much sun you actually get in winter.
OK, now we’ve listened to Paul, let’s look at the way he connected his ideas.
Good communication, especially in an academic setting, is all about expressing and connecting both simple and complex ideas.
There are many ways to do this.
Simple sentences express a single, simple idea.
The most simple sentence consists of just a ‘subject’ and a ‘verb’.
‘The door opens.’
‘The woman enters.’
The easiest way of connecting ideas is using ‘coordination’.
That’s taking 2 simple sentences, and linking them with a ‘conjunction’ or joining word.
The most common conjunctions are ‘and’ and ‘but’.
Other common ones are ‘yet’, ‘or’, ‘for’, and ‘so’.
We use the most simple conjunctions in place of a ‘full stop’.
‘The door opens.’ ‘The woman enters.’
‘The door opens and the woman enters.’
‘The door opens.’ ‘The woman doesn’t enter.’
‘The door opens but the woman doesn’t enter.’
Listen to an example here.
Well we completed it about 2 years ago, and I guess one of the interesting things about it is that it’s a fibro house and most houses I guess these days are brick veneer.
It’s a fibro house and most houses are brick veneer.
‘It is a fibro house.’
‘Most houses are brick veneer.’
These are 2 simple sentences.
They can be linked together to form a longer sentence called a ‘compound sentence’.
‘It is a fibro house and most houses are brick veneer.’
Compound sentences have 2 ‘independent clauses’, 2 clauses that can be separate sentences.
Here’s another one.
The ceiling height on the south basically allows you to get a lot of sun in through these windows in winter, and the louvres, which go out, actually go to a point where the sun can be shaded completely in summer, but they can be opened to let the sun right back into the house though winter.
He’s talking about the louvres.
He joins together two sentences.
‘The louvres go to a point where the sun can be shaded completely in summer.’
‘They can be opened to let the sun back in through winter.’
He joins these sentences together using ‘but’. Notice we use a ‘comma’ as well.
‘The louvres go to a point where the sun can be shaded completely in summer, but they can be opened to let the sun back in through winter.’
The conjunctions ‘and’ and ‘but’ can also be used to join words and phrases in lists.
We separate words with ‘commas’, and then use a final ‘and’.
‘The house is made of fibro.’
‘The house is made of fibro and timber.’
‘The house is made of fibro, timber and bricks.’
今天的语法点是COORDINATION AND SUBORDINATION 并列句和从句
is used to connect ideas that are of equal importance, joining independent clauses, which express ideas of equal content. An independent clause is, in fact, a simple sentence.
is used to connect main ideas with supporting ones. Sentences of this type join independent clauses with dependent clauses or phrases.
are used to join ideas together. There are two types of conjunctions - coordinating and subordinating.
conjunctions join independent clauses (simple sentences) to form compound sentences.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, so, for, yet, nor
. Each expresses a different relationship between the clauses.
connect a dependent clause to an independent clause to form a complete sentence, which is called a complex sentence.
There are a number of different dependent clauses, for example dependent adjective clauses
and dependent adverb clauses
. The subordinating conjunctions used in the various clauses express a variety of different relationships with the dependent clauses.