一起烤雅思 1-12a CARBON CYCLE

steelver (白龍) 路人甲
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发表于:2012-05-12 12:00 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
近期节目传送门~ Episode9 α β Episode10 α β Episode11 α β
收到热心童鞋的建议,音频将分为小节,方便大家逐页对照,也可以自由轻松的调整学习进度^_^ 碰到不懂的单词请召唤小D喔~


Today, we’re going to look at cycles, at phrasal verbs, and then we’ll finish with a bit of punctuation.

But now, here’s a man who is a microbiologist and a mushroom grower.

He’s talking about mushrooms, and the part they play in the carbon cycle.

They occur naturally in the forests as wood degrading fungi. That's their job. When trees die, they grow on the tree. They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which is the most resistant form of carbon, and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn, you end up with organic matter going back into the soil, and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes on.

The speaker, Noel Arrold, is talking about how mushrooms grow ‘naturally’.

They are an important part of the carbon cycle, but what is a ‘cycle’?

A ‘cycle’ is a process that is repeated over and over. It goes around and around.

But how do we know this from listening to Noel?

When trees die, they grow on the tree. They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which is the most resistant form of carbon, and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn, you end up with organic matter going back into the soil, and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes on.

He says ‘and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes on.’

By saying ‘the cycle goes on’ he is telling us that this process happens again and again.

At the end of the description, you need to signal that the process goes back to the beginning again.

We can say:
‘The process goes on.’
‘The process begins again.’
‘The process repeats itself.’

In a cycle, there is no real end or beginning, because the process just keeps going.

When describing a cycle, we need to start somewhere, then describe, in order, each
part of the cycle.

There are many different ways of describing the stages of a cycle. We can use transitional signals like ‘when’, ‘once’, ‘then’, or next’. When speaking, you can also use pauses and intonation to describe a cycle. In written language, this becomes punctuation.


Listen to Noel Arrold again describing the different parts of the cycle.

When trees die, they grow on the tree.

He says:
‘When trees die, they grow on the tree.’
‘When trees die comma, they grow on the tree.’

The first part of the cycle is that the trees die.

The second part is that when the trees die, fungi grow on the trees.

That’s the next stage.

When trees die, they grow on the tree.

They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which is the most resistant form of carbon, and they break it down, produce mushrooms.


OK, he says that the fungi break down the lignin and the cellulose. They break down
the tree.

So the third stage is that the fungi break down the tree.

Fourth, they produce mushrooms.

When trees die, they grow on the tree.

They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which is the most resistant form of carbon, and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn, you end up with organic matter going back into the soil.

e says ‘in turn’ organic matter goes back into the soil.


‘In turn’ signals the next stage of the process. ‘In turn’ means ‘next’, or ‘because of that’.

That’s the fifth stage. The organic matter goes back into the soil.

And then what happens?

When trees die, they grow on the tree.

They break down the lignin and the cellulose,

which is the most resistant form of carbon, and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn, you end up with organic matter going back into the soil, and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes on.


The carbon cycle in the forest goes on.

The organic matter helps new trees to grow again, and then those trees die. We’re back to the first stage again. This is the carbon cycle.
点击查看大图~STUDY NOTES~今天的Note重点的确很重喔!
PHRASAL VERBS
Phrasal verbs are characteristic of informal language, and are commonly used in spoken English. Though they do not look difficult, they can be problematic for learners of English because of their construction and idiomatic meanings.

Phrasal verbs consist of a verb followed by a preposition. This forms a new verb, one sometimes related to the original verb, but sometimes not.

There’s no pattern to the meanings they take, and they often have a number of different meanings.

Phrasal verbs are expressions or phrases which consist of a:
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Phrasal Verbs and Meanings
When a verb combines with either an adverb or preposition to form the phrasal verb, a new or extended meaning is created. This meaning is sometimes predictable from the meanings of the words that form them, but usually the meanings are unpredictable because they are idiomatic – the meanings cannot be understood from the individual words. For example:
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Phrasal verbs are commonly followed by prepositions and adverbs such as:in, out,
up, off, back, into, on, over, down
and others. Compare how the meaning of a verb,
for example go, changes with the preposition or adverb.
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今天内容灰常多呢!记得好好消化下喔!
作业来啦!请用词组来替换括号内的单词~
Choose the correct phrasal verb to replace the italicised verb in the following
sentences. The phrasal verb needs to have the same meaning as the verb being
replaced. Use a dictionary if needed.

答题区

1、There is no way he can [avoid] the high interest rates.
2、The storm came suddenly, so I had to [postpone] my trip.
3、My teacher said I should [learn] Mandarin.
4、Can I [visit] again next week?
5、She has been [progressing] well in her job.

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