Few words are more commonly used in our modern world than the word modern itself. The modernity (现代性) of manufactured articles, of institutions (公共机构), of attitudes, of works of art is constantly brought to our attention. We ourselves may well be judged by whether we are modern or not; indeed, many people go to considerable lengths to make quite certain that they will be accepted as modern in their dress, their behavior, and their beliefs. And yet, we may ask, must not earlier generations have felt precisely the same? Surely men throughout history must have recognized themselves as modern. Surely innovators like Julius Caesar, Peter the Great or Oliver Cromwell saw themselves as breaking with the past, as establishing a new order? Must they not also have shared our awareness of the significance of what is modern? What is modern is distinct from what belongs to the past and men in earlier times must have experienced this sense of distinctiveness. Man cannot escape, and never have been able to escape, from an awareness of change, our sense of distinctiveness, is very different from that of our distant ancestors. Change for us is more, much more, than the change brought about by the passing of time, by important events or by the actions of outstanding individuals or groups of people. We make use of change and we ourselves are parts of a process of change. Change for us has become modernization and modernization implies both direction and consciousness. Change is something we week, something we attempt to control and something that has no end.