除了学习外,21世纪的孩子成功还需要的几种技能

火星小兔 (小兔) 正式会员
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发表于:2015-07-18 09:15 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

The face of education is changing more in current times than perhaps it ever has before. Children need not only to learn information and academics, but also need to learn the skills that will help them grow into successful adults in the 21st century.

现代教育面貌发生着比以往任何时候更加剧烈的变化。孩子们不仅需要学习信息和学术,还需要学习其他技能,帮助他们成为21世纪成功的成年人。

Whether you’re a parent or a teacher, you need to ensure that the children you’re charged with are fostering each of these non-academic skills in their daily lives if you want to see them succeed.

无论你是家长还是老师,如果你希望你负责的孩子能够成功,你都要确保在日常生活中培养他们这些非学术技能。

1. Character 性格

Building character is definitely nothing new to the 21st century.

21世纪,性格培养已经司空见惯。

However, it’s still an incredibly important non-academic skill to focus on as children grow up in modern day society. They must be taught self-control, especially in an age in which so many stimuli are at their fingertips. We also must foster in our children a sense of curiosity about the world around them; and not in a superficial, “Let’s Google it” manner. Children must yearn to explore the world, and find answers for themselves rather than relying on a machine to give them everything. We should also build up our children’s confidence, so they are optimistic about their lives as they grow into young adults, so they can face the world knowing they can improve it in some way.

然而,在孩子们逐渐成长,步入现代社会的过程中,性格培养仍然是一种至关重要的技能。他们必须学会自我控制,尤其是在诸多外部刺激唾手可得的时代。我们还必须培养孩子对周围的世界产生好奇心,而不是抱着一知半解的“让我们上网搜索一下”的态度。孩子们必须渴望探索世界,自己寻找答案,而不是依赖电脑给他们一切。我们还应该让孩子建立自信,这样他们成年后才会对生活感到乐观,面对这个世界,他们才知道自己能够让世界变得更美好。

2. Social and Emotional Skills 社交和情感技能

In a world in which we’re increasingly isolated by computers, cell phones, and television, children need to learn how to interact with one another. They need to know how to treat each other, and how to address each other’s needs. Really, the only way they can do this is by being placed into social situations and monitored by a knowing and caring adult to help guide them when situations turn ugly. If a child’s social behavior is left unchecked, it could lead to multiple problems down the road.

在这个由于电脑,手机和电视机而变得越来越孤立的世界,孩子们需要学习如何与他人沟通。他们需要知道如何对待他人,如何满足他人的需求。能够做到这一点的唯一方法就是让他们置身社交场合,当情况变得复杂时,由经验丰富,体贴周到的成年人监督,指引他们。如果孩子的社交行为没有得到审视和纠正,会引发以后诸多问题。

3. Growth Mindset 成长心态

Children should know they are constantly growing and learning. Yes, it is okay for kids to be kids, but they also should be constantly conscious of the fact that each experience they go through is a chance to learn something even in a non-academic setting. This will help them make the most out of bad situations, because they’ll always be looking at what they learned, rather than the fact that they messed up. They’ll also learn to be okay with messing up, as they’ll understand that life is a process of learning from one’s mistakes. When we stop learning, that’s when trouble starts to pile up. As Noah Webster (of Webster’s dictionary) once said, “The virtues of men are of more consequence to society than their abilities…for this reason, the heart should be cultivated.”

孩子应该知道他们在不断成长和学习。是的,孩子保持孩子的心态当然不错。但是他们也应该意识到,他们的每一次经历都是学习的机会,即使是在非学术环境下。这将帮助他们充分利用糟糕的处境,因为他们总是会看自己学到了什么,而不是纠结于自己弄糟了什么。他们会理解,生活就是一个从错误中学习的过程。当我们停止学习的时候,麻烦就会不断累积。韦氏辞典编纂者诺亚•韦伯斯特曾说过,“对社会来说,人类的美德比能力更重要。由于这个原因,我们必须培养人的心性。”

4. Non-cognitive Traits and Habits非认知特征与习惯

Researchers are on the fence about the name of this characteristic, but in essence they are describing metacognitive skills. In other words, these are the non-academic skills that we use in order to know which other skills to use. For example, a child may know the multiplication tables by heart, but after reading a word problem, he might not know that he should be using multiplication to solve the problem. It’s important to focus not just on what skills to learn, but how to use them as well. Sometimes the development of these traits occurs in the typical problem-solving that goes along in regular life.

关于这个性格的名称,研究人员摇摆不定。但是从本质上来说,它们描述的是元认知技能。换句话说,这是我们所使用的非学术技能,用来了解应该使用其他什么技能。例如,一个孩子或许将乘法表牢记于心,但是读完一道文字题之后,他可能不知道他应该用乘法表来解答这个问题。我们不仅应该知道学习什么技能,还应该学习如何使用。有时这些特征的培养就发生在日常生活中解决问题的过程中。

5. Grit 果敢

Life isn’t easy. The sooner children figure that out, the better off they’ll be. They need to learn that it’s totally okay to fail, as long as they pick themselves up and keep pushing until they succeed. They also need to understand the difference between passing by the skin of their teeth and passing with flying colors. One will earn them just enough to get by in life, but the other will allow them to truly get ahead. Being rigorous in all activities, and putting their all into everything they set out to do, is of utmost importance if children want to live their life to the fullest. Even something simple like asking your child, “What did you fail at today?” shows them that failure happens everyday but can be overcome with persistence or through another avenue.

生活并不容易。孩子们越早认识到这一点,对他们的未来就越好。他们要学会,失败没什么大不了,跌倒后爬起来继续努力,直到成功。孩子们还必须知道勉强成功与凯旋而归之间的差别。前者只能让你勉强度日,后者才能让你不断前行。严格对待所有活动。如果孩子们想要最充实的生活,那么全力以赴做自己计划的事情非常重要。即使简单地问你的孩子“今天你什么事情没做好?”也能向他们表明失败每天都会发生,但是通过持之以恒或换一种方法都可以克服。

6. 21st Century Skills 21世纪的技能

The Information Age has brought about a time in which we must become specialized in one area, while also exhibiting a variety of other skills as well. From an early age, children now learn how to collaborate and communicate with others. They also need to think critically and be creative in finding solutions to problems that didn’t even exist twenty years ago. In doing so, the children of today will ensure that society continues to move forward tomorrow.

伴随信息时代而来的是,我们必须学有所长,同时也表现出各种其他技能。从年幼的时候起,孩子们就开始学习如何与其他人合作与沟通。他们还需要批判地思考,甚至用二十年前还不存在的创造性方法解决问题。通过这样,今天的孩子才能确保社会明天继续前进。

7. Soft Skills 软技能

This last set of non-academic skills is a bit of a misnomer. Any skill you can learn is important, so calling these skills “soft” makes them seem less so. However, now more than ever it is important that children learn the basics of professionalism. They need to know it’s important to be punctual, and to dress properly. They need to exhibit good manners and obey social conventions, not just during their working hours, but at all times. It’s increasingly important that children understand that their online persona will allow others to judge their real-life personality, so it’s important to be prudent both on and offline. If they don’t pay attention to these social conventions, all other skills they learn will ultimately be null and void.

最后一个非学术技能似乎有点用词不当。你能学习的任何技能都非常重要,所以称它们为“软技能”。然而,现在,孩子学习基本的职业化知识变得尤为重要。他们需要准时,需要得体着装。他们需要表现出良好的礼貌,需要遵守社交规范,不仅仅是上班时间,而是每时每刻。还有一点越来越重要,孩子们必须明白,他们的网络形象会让他人判断他们在真实生活中的性格,所以,无论是线上还是线下都要谨慎。如果他们不注意社交惯例,他们所学的其他所有技能都徒劳无功。


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