转载# 如何突破口语

熙姝 (Julia) 圈内达人
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发表于:2015-07-24 17:25 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

今天在沪江看到一篇讲英语口语的贴子,感觉也很适合德语呢。于是。。转过来~~

1.Don't study grammar too much
1.不要太钻语法

This rule might sound strange to many ESL students, but it is one of the most important rules. If you want to pass examinations, then study grammar. However, if you want to become fluent in English, then you should try to learn English without studying the grammar.
对于许多ESL(英语作为第二语言)学生,这条规则听起来很奇怪,但它是最重要的规则之一。如果你想要通过考试,那就学习语法。然而,如果你想要把英语说的更流利,那么你应该尝试学习英语这门语言而不学习语法。

Studying grammar will only slow you down and confuse you. You will think about the rules when creating sentences instead of naturally saying a sentence like a native. Remember that only a small fraction of English speakers know more than 20% of all the grammar rules. Many ESL students know more grammar than native speakers. I can confidently say this with experience. I am a native English speaker, majored in English Literature, and have been teaching English for more than 10 years. However, many of my students know more details about English grammar than I do. I can easily look up the definition and apply it, but I don't know it off the top of my head.
学习语法会让你慢下来,把你弄糊涂。在构建句子的时候,你会去思考规则,而不是像本国人一样自然而然的说出一个句子。要知道,只有很小一部分的英语使用者知道超过20%的英语语法规则。许多ESL学生知道的语法只是要比本国人更多。从我的经验来看,可以充分说明这一点。我的母语是英语,并且主修英语文学,到现在为止也已经教了十多年的英语。但是,我的学生比我知道更多有关英语语法的细节。我可以很迅速的去查找一个语法细节的定义并且去应用它,但是我再脱口而出说的时候却都没有意识到这些规则的存在。

I often ask my native English friends some grammar questions, and only a few of them know the correct answer. However, they are fluent in English and can read, speak, listen, and communicate effectively.
我总是问我同样是英语为母语的朋友一些语法问题。他们当中也只有很少一部分人能说出正确答案。但是,他们都说着很流利的英语,并且听说读和交流都很顺畅。

2.Learn and study phrases
2.学习和研究短语

Many students learn vocabulary and try to put many words together to create a proper sentence. It amazes me how many words some of my students know, but they cannot create a proper sentence. The reason is because they didn't study phrases. When children learn a language, they learn both words and phrases together. Likewise, you need to study and learn phrases.
很多学生学习词汇,并尝试把很多单词在一起以构建一个恰当的句子。学生们的单词量让我很意外,但是要构建一个正确的句子对他们来说却很难。原因是因为他们没有学习短语。当孩子们学习一种语言时,词和短语他们都学。同样,你也需要学习短语。

If you know 1000 words, you might not be able to say one correct sentence. But if you know 1 phrase, you can make hundreds of correct sentences. If you know 100 phrases, you will be surprised at how many correct sentences you will be able to say. Finally, when you know only a 1000 phrases, you will be almost a fluent English speaker.
如果你知道1000 个单词,你可能不一定能够说一个正确的句子。但如果你知道1 个短语,你可以说数百个正确的句子。如果你知道100 个短语,你将会惊讶于你可以说如此多正确的句子。最后,当你知道只有1000年个短语,你就能说流利的英语了。

3. Don't translate
3. 不要翻译

When you want to create an English sentence, do not translate the words from your Mother tongue. The order of words is probably completely different and you will be both slow and incorrect by doing this. Instead, learn phrases and sentences so you don't have to think about the words you are saying. It should be automatic.
当你想构建一个英语句子的时候,不要尝试着从母语翻译句子。两种语言的词序有可能不同,如果尝试翻译,就很有可能出错。相反,如果学习短语和句子,你就用不着思考单个单词。这整个过程应该是不假思索的。

Another problem with translating is that you will be trying to incorporate grammar rules that you have learned. Translating and thinking about the grammar to create English sentences is incorrect and should be avoided.Reading and Listening is NOT enough. Practice speaking what you hear!
翻译的另一个问题是你将会试图把你所学到的语法规则全部揉起来。依靠翻译和语法来构建英语句子是不正确的,应该避免。 阅读和听力是不够的。把你听到的英语多加练习!

Reading, listening, and speaking are the most important aspects of any language. The same is true for English. However, speaking is the only requirement to be fluent. It is normal for babies and children to learn speaking first, become fluent, then start reading, then writing. So the natural order is listening, speaking, reading, then writing.
阅读、听力和口语都是任何一种语言的最重要方面。英语也不例外。但是,“说”是我们唯一加了“流利”这个标准的。对于孩童来说,他们先开始说,之后再开始说的流利,然后开始阅读,开始写作。所以一个自然的顺序是听力,口语,阅读,然后写作。

First Problem
第一个问题

Isn't it strange that schools across the world teach reading first, then writing, then listening, and finally speaking? Although it is different, the main reason is because when you learn a second language, you need to read material to understand and learn it. So even though the natural order is listening, speaking, reading, then writing, the order for ESL students is reading, listening, speaking, then writing.
全世界的学校的教学顺序都是这样的:阅读,写作,然后再是听力,最后是写作。这真的让人感觉到奇怪。虽然有特例,但是这其中最主要的原因还是因为当学一种第二外语的时候,你需要首先阅读一些材料,然后在去理解和学习它。所以即使自然的秩序是听、说、读,然后写作,但是ESL 学生的顺序是阅读、听力、然后写。

Second Problem
第二个问题

The reason many people can read and listen is because that's all they practice. But in order to speak English fluently, you need to practice speaking. Don't stop at the listening portion, and when you study, don't just listen. Speak out loud the material you are listening to and practice what you hear. Practice speaking out loud until your mouth and brain can do it without any effort. By doing so, you will be able to speak English fluently.
许多人能够说和听的原因是他们练习的内容就仅限于此了。但是为了流利地说英语,你需要练习口语。不要仅仅停留在就听力部分。把听到的材料大声说出来,再练习。练习的时候要大声,直到你的大脑和嘴巴能对英语信手拈来。通过这样做,你将能够流利地说英语。


4. Submerge yourself
4. 让自己完全浸入

Being able to speak a language is not related to how smart you are. Anyone can learn how to speak any language. This is a proven fact by everyone in the world. Everyone can speak at least one language. Whether you are intelligent, or lacking some brain power, you are able to speak one language.
能否讲一种语言,和你是否聪明无关。任何人都可以学习如何说任何一种语言无关。这在世界范围内都是得到证实的。每个人都能讲至少一种语言。无论你有多聪明,还是智商不是太高,你都能说一种语言。

This was achieved by being around that language at all times. In your country, you hear and speak your language constantly. You will notice that many people who are good English speakers are the ones who studied in an English speaking school. They can speak English not because they went to an English speaking school, but because they had an environment where they can be around English speaking people constantly.
之所以能这样,是因为你一直被这种语言所包围。在你的国家,你不停的听到并且说自己的语言。你会发现那些英语说得很好的人都是在说英语的学校里面的。他们能说英语并不是因为是去了一家说英语的学校,而是因为他们有一个环境可以让他们不断说英语。

There are also some people who study abroad and learn very little. That is because they went to an English speaking school, but found friends from their own country and didn't practice English.
当然,也有人去了国外,但是学到的东西却很少。这是因为他们去了一所说英语的学校,但是周围的朋友都是来自自己的国家并且都不说英语。

You don't have to go anywhere to become a fluent English speaker. You only need to surround yourself with English. You can do this by making rules with your existing friends that you will only speak English. You can also carry around an iPod and constantly listen to English sentences. As you can see, you can achieve results by changing what your surroundings are. Submerge yourself in English and you will learn several times faster.
要想能够流利说英语,你并不是非得去某个地方。只要你能够背英语围绕就行。要达到这种效果,你可以和你现在的朋友约定只说英语。你可以还随身携带一台iPod,不断地听英语句子。正如你所看到的,您可以通过改变你周围的环境实现预想的效果。让自己沉浸在英语当中,你将会学得快几倍。

5. Study correct material
5. 使用正确的学习材料

A common phrase that is incorrect is, "Practice makes perfect." This is far from the truth. Practice only makes what you are practicing permanent. If you practice the incorrect sentence, you will have perfected saying the sentence incorrectly. Therefore, it is important that you study material that is commonly used by most people.
有句话可能有失偏颇:“熟能生巧”。练习只能让你永远停留在练习。如果你练习一个不正确的句子,那么你还会一直不正确下去。因此,你必须选择大多数人选用的材料。

Another problem I see is that many students study the news. However, the language they speak is more formal and the content they use is more political and not used in regular life. It is important to understand what they are saying, but this is more of an advanced lesson that should be studied after learning the fundamental basics of English.
另外一个问题是,我发现很多学生都去学习新闻素材。然而,他们所学的语言听起来就更正式,他们使用的内容就更有政治的意味,并且在日常交流中不常使用。去理解他们说什么很重要,但是比之更重要的是在学习了语言基本知识之后去接触更高级的语言知识。

Studying English with a friend who is not a native English speaker is both good and bad. You should be aware of the pros and cons of speaking with a non-native speaking friend. Practicing with a non-native person will give you practice. You can also motivate each other and point out basic mistakes. But you might pick up bad habits from one another if you are not sure about what are correct and incorrect sentences. So use these practice times as a time period to practice the correct material you studied.
和一个非英语母语的朋友一起学习英语有利也有弊。你应该意识到这种利弊。和非英语母语的人练习可以是一次练习的机会。你也可以彼此激励,指出基本的错误。但是如果你不知道一个句子正确与否,你就有可能从另外一个朋友那里带走一些坏习惯。可以把这部分的时间利用起来去练习正确的素材。

In short, study English material that you can trust, that is commonly used, and that is correct.
简而言之,应该去学习那些你放心的,常用的并且正确的材料学习。


原文链接》 http://st.hujiang.com/topic/164226151923/

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最后编辑于:2015-08-04 16:57
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