如何做好高中英语语法填空

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发表于:2014-04-20 01:15 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
 如何做好高中英语语法填空  一、已给单词提示题型的技巧  此类题可以考查学生对单词形式变化的掌握程度。单词形式变化主要有两种,
一是词的
形、数、式的变化,一是词的派生变化。在判断出词的变化之后还应该进一步审题,看是否需要使用复合的变化形式,这一点是很重要的。  技巧一:
名词形式变化。名词的形式变化主要有单数、复数、所有格的变化。 例1:There are many students living at school, the__(child)houses are all far from school.  由students一词可以判断出横线处应填复数,且作为houses的定语,所以应用其所有格形式,故答案为child的复合变化形式——复数的所有格children's。  技巧二:
动词形式变化。动词的形式变化比较多,有谓语的变化(时态、语态、语气),有
非谓语的变化(不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词)。 例2:Atalk__(give)tomorrow is written by Professor Zhang.  句中的is是整句的谓语,所以横线所在的动词应当用作非谓语。从tomorrow可以看出,报告是“将来”作的,故用不定式;且报告是give动作的承受者,故可以判断出横线所在处用give的不定式被动式——to be given。 
技巧三:代词形式变化。
代词形式变化通常是与人称变化有关的三大类五小类,即人称代词(主格和宾格)、物主代词(形容词性和名词性)、反身代词。另外还有几个不定代词的形
式变化,如no one/none、other/another等。  例3:The king decided to see the painter by__(he).  由介词by可以看出,横线处应填反身代词himself。
  技巧四:形容词、副词比较级变化。英语中大部分形容词和表方式的副词都有原级、
比较级和最高级的变化。构成比较级和最高级的方式,或通过加后缀-er和-est,或在词前加
more/less和most/least,且形容词的绝对最高级还要冠以the。  例4:I am__(tall)than Liu Wen. He is the tallest students in my class.  此题后句交代了Liu Wen是班上最高的学生,那“我”肯定比他矮,所以不能用taller,只能用表示程度不如的“less tall”。 技巧五:数词形式变化。数词的形式变化包括基数词、
序数词,或加后缀-teen、-ty的变化,甚至还有作分母用的序数词的单复数形式,以及one/two的特殊变化形式once/twice。 例5:To my three sons I leave my seventeen horses. My eldest son shall take a half, my second son shall take a__(three)...  从上下文连续起来理解,这是一个分马的计划,大儿子分得a half,也就是“一半”或“二分之一”,那么二儿子应该得“三分之一”,所以要填人作分母的序数词“third”才能命中目标。
 技巧六:
词的派生。词的派生现象在英语单词中是很常见的,派生现象主要发生在名词、动词、形容词、副词四种词中。这种题型还有可能检测学生对词根、前后缀、派生词的掌握。 例6:Lious lost his wallet yesterday, so he was very__(happiness).  在这道题中,学生很容易判断出该用形容词,由此可知将happiness还原成词根happy;钱包丢了,人应该是不开心的,所以要再加个前缀un-,就成了unhappy。 

二、未给单词提示题型的技巧  此类题难度较大,但也是有方法对付的。  技巧七:固定短语结构。根据句中横线前后及整句来判断横线前后是否构成一个固定短语,但有时要对横线前或后的几个单词“视而不见”才能命中答案。  例7:The children were playing on the ground, enjoying__,dirty but happy

从句中的happy可以猜出孩子们是开心的,所以应用enjoy oneself短语,故其答案为themselves。  例8:His boss was__angry as to fire him.  如果“跳过”横线后面的angry,就可以发现这里用到一个关联短语so...as to,所以,so是正解。 
技巧八:从句引导词。
从句是此题型最为常见的一个方向,主要检测学生对引导词的掌握程度。  例9:He did not do__his father had asked him to do.  审题可知,横线所在为宾语从句的引导词,此引导词在从句中充当宾语,且指物,所以是what。  例10: Those__want to go to the village must sign here.  经过观察可以判断横线所在为定语从句的引导词,进一步观察可知先行词为those,且指人,所以只能填入who。  技巧九:短语动词结构。短语动词是以动词为中心的两个或多个词构成的短语,此类短语中往往是动词与介词或副词连用的多些。 例11:The US consists__fifty states.  根据常识可知,美国由50个州组成,故横线处与前一词组合,表示“由……组成”,所以答案是of。  例12:Mrs Baker was ill, so her daughter had to ask for leave to take__of her. 生病需要人照顾,所以答案是care,与前后词构成take care of。  技巧十:短语介词结构。短语介词即多个词的组合起介词作用的短语,如:except for, due to等。  例13:Mr Smith took a plane to London__of taking a train.  此题中说到两种交通工具,所以可以理解此句有“坐……而不是坐……”的意思,故答案为instead,以构成介词短语instead of。  例14:Just then, he saw a blackboard in__of him.  细心观察,可以看出填入front即可构成in front of
,此题得解。  技巧十一:连词、关联短语结构。常用的连词有
and, or, but, so, for, while等,常用的关联短语有both...and, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also等。  例15:Little Wang Jun could not go to school, __his family was too poor. 此处表示原因,引导的分句其实是一种解释说明,不是必然的因果关系,且前面有逗号隔开,所以填for。  例16:__Marrie and Jannie like going to the theatre.  横线处的词与后面可以构成both...and,故答案为Both。  技巧十二:冠词、介词和常用的副词。冠词只能是在
a,an,the之间判断;常用的介词有in,at,on,
before,during等,通常考查固定搭配;副词的量还是比较多,如:however,never,yet,much等,但一般不会考查-ly形式的方式副词(见技巧六——形容词派生副词的情况)。  例17:Jackie likes to drive at__high speed.  这里考查的是不定冠词的习惯用法,答案为a,构成at a high speed,“以高速”开车。 例18:Old Tom's grand-danghter used to visit him__Saturday afternoon. Saturday afternoon是指定的某天下午,所以不用介词in,而用on才是正解。  例19:Though Liu Qiang did the same work__Zhang Wen did,he got a lower pay__Zhang  
             第一条横线可由前面的the same判断出用as,第二条横线则可由lower判断出比较意义,故答案为than。  例20:It was only one day left,__,his father had no idea to answer him. 观察上下句,可以看出是转折关系,且横线与前后用逗号隔开,排除but,所以答案是however。 技巧十三:
上下文中出现的相关词。这一招是最为灵活的,但也是最难的。学生可以根据上下文;关系和自己积累的知识,填入某个已出现的词,或其反义词,或其同类的某个词。 答案的线索可能在本句,可能出现在上下相连的一句,还可能出现在比较远的,地方——上下段中与此段位置大体相当的句子。如果该横线出现在某段的首句,则线索可能在上下段的首句;如果横线出现在某段的末句,则线索可能在上下段的末句,以此类推。 例21:Tony__travelling abroad, but dislikes staying home watching TV. 由第二句话中的dislikes可以判断,此横线处应该是填其反义词likes。  
         语法填空专项训练  阅读下面短文,根据上下文填入适当的词语,或使用括号中的词语的适当形式填空,并将答案填写在答题卡上标号的相应位置。    One  In the United States, there were 222 people ____1____ (report) to be billionaires(亿万富翁) in 2003. The ____2_____ of these is Bill Gates, worth at least $ 41 billion, who made his money ____3____ starting the company Microsoft. Mr. Gates was only 21 years old _____4____ he first helped to set up the company in 1976. He was a billionaire _____5___ the time he was 31.     ____6____, there are still some other people who have made lots of money at even ____7____ (young) ages. Other young people who have struck it rich include Jackie Coogan and Shirley Temple. ____8____ of these child actors made over a million dollars ___9____ (act) in movies before they were 14. But ___10___ youngest billionaire is Albert von Thurn und Taxis of Germany, who, in 2001, inherited (继承) a billion dollars when he turned 18!     Two  Finishing their shopping at the mall, a couple discovered that their new car ____1_____ (steal) .They filed a report____2____ the police station and a detective drove them ____3____ to the parking lot to look for evidence.   To their ____4____ (amaze), the car had been returned ___5____ there was a note in it that said: “I apologize for taking your car. My wife was having a baby and I had to rush her to the ____6_____. Please forget the inconvenience. There are two tickets ____7____ tonight's Mania Twain concert.”   Their faith in humanity restored. The couple attended ____8____ concert. But when they returned home, they immediately found ____9______their house had been ransacked (洗劫). On the bathroom mirror was ____10_____ note: “I have to put my kid through college somehow, don't I?”   
                        Zhongshan Mingshi Education Center               
              Three  People _____1___ (live) in different countries made different kinds of words. Today there are about fifteen hundred _____2_____ in the world. Each contains many thousands of words. A very large dictionary, for example, contains four ___3___ five hundred thousand words. But we do not need ____4____ these. To read short stories you need to know only about two thousand words. ____5_____ you leave school, you will learn only one thousand or more.   The words you know are called your vocabulary. You should try to make your vocabulary ______6___ (big). Read as many books as we can. There are a lot of books _____7____ (write) in easy English. You will enjoy them. When you meet _____8____ new word, look it ____9_____ in your dictionary. Your dictionary is your _____10_____ (much) useful book.     Four  When you are in England you must be very careful in the streets ____1_____ the traffic drives on the left. Before you cross a street you must look to the right first _____2____ then the left. In the morning and in the evening when people go to or come from ____3____, the streets are very busy. Traffic is most ____4___ (danger) then.   When you go by bus in England, you have to be careful, ____5____. Always remember the traffic moves on the left. So you must be careful. _____6____ (have) a look first, or you will go ____7____ wrong way.   In many English cities, there are big buses ____8_____ two floors. You can sit on the ______9____ (two) floor. From ____10_____ you can see the city very well. It’s very interesting.    Five  ____1____ artist had a small daughter. Sometimes he painted women ___2_____ any clothes on, and he and his ____3____ always tried to keep the small girl out ____4____ he was doing this, “She is ____5_____ young to understand,” they said.   But one day, when the artist _____6____ (paint) a woman with no clothes on, he forgot to lock the door, and the girl suddenly ran into the room. He mother ran up the stairs ____7____ her, but when she got to the room, the little girl was already in the room and looking at the woman. _____8___ her parents waited for her to speak.   For a few seconds the little girl said ____9_____, but then she ran to her mother and said ____10_____ (angry), “Why do you let her go about without shoes and socks on when you don’t let me?


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