GRE阅读全攻略

发表于:2012-07-27 11:44 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
G友们,看到一篇非常非常好的攻略帖,虽然长了点,乍看之下,有点眼花缭乱。但是耐心看下以后,真心觉得非常非常实用。分享给大家,希望一起早日脱离茫茫苦海。

写在前面,

GMAT阅读考得是理解能力,保证阅读高分的方法不仅仅是理解文章,还要理解题目、理解出题人的心理。对于阅读,框架、TOPIC、问题及定位,是必备素养(这里就不强调语法与词汇的重要性咯,文章最后会提供一些方法)。笔者在这里想说,即使有再多的攻略,再多的前人经验及各种‘套路’,熟悉‘套路’只能作为一个expediency,英语阅读实力的提高,归根结蒂不是靠套路而是靠对原文的领会深意。所以什么攻略都比不上自己的总结、自己对GMAT的feel噢~

Part A

所谓六大题型即
1.关于文章的中心思想(主题题)
2.关于文中的论点(观点题-细节题)
3.关于基于文中给出信息的推论(推导题)
4.关于文中的信息如何适用于文章以外的环境(类比题)
5.关于文章的逻辑结构(结构题)
6.关于文章的风格和基调(态度题)

1. 关于文章的中心思想(主题题)

GMAT中的每一篇阅读文章都是浑然一体的,也就是说,每一个句子和段落都支持或者展开同一个主题,或者叫一个中心思想。有时文章会告诉你主题是什么,有时则需要你从整篇文章的组织和铺陈去推定中心思想。主题题可能会要求你识别有关文章主题的一个正确陈述或者解释,也可能要求你鉴别作者写这篇文章的主要意图或者目的,还可能要求你给文章冠一个简明扼要地概括了文章所演绎内容的中心思想的标题。因此很多人在阅读时不能将整篇文章进行系统的理解、“只见树,不见林”会处于很被动的状态。我们需要从文章的细枝末节中找出更具系统的观点来。
    主题题型的实质就是TOPIC SENTENCE(下文简称TS)的寻找,所以我们可以把解题方法分为几种情况:TS可以找到;TS找不到;文章的FOCUS找不到。这三种情况的优先级是依次递减的。看到主题题型,应先找TS,找到就直接改写,找不到,需要找到文章的FOCUS,也就是谈论对象,随即运用排除法解题,如果FOCUS也很难分辨,则考虑其它办法,下面我们来逐一介绍一下:
1、套路结构法:
A、现象解释型文章:文章开始给出现象,之后必定有解释,TS在解释给出处。若解释不止一个,TS则为给予正评价的那个。
B、新老观点型文章:TS在新观点处(注意旧观点的取非)。
C、问题解决方案型文章:TS位于相应的解决方案处。文章中语言现象提示TS的给出
A、一段叙述后有转折连词:but, yet, however, actually, in fact, indeed, virtually,practically等,TS位于转折之后作者态度处。
B、设问以及回答:作者的自问自答,TS位于回答处。
C、大段举例前的理论说明或者之后的归纳易成为TS。

2、选项排除法
A、主题题型的正确选项中不能含有任何的细节内容(如例子、比喻以及非关键人物等)。也就是说,看到选项中出现在仅在某段提到的大写人名或者具体时间就要果断排除。
B、正确选项中应含有文章的FOCUS,也就是主题论述对象。
C、正确选项中应含有作者的态度(包含让步语气)。

3、“从前不从后”
在文章的FOCUS也很难分辨的情况下,要在文章靠前的部分寻找重点。着重阅读一段和二段的首句,体会作者态度,然后结合排除法解题。
附:主题题型的分类:
1、main idea/primary purpose(和文章FOCUS以及作者态度相关)
2、main content/bestsummarize passage/focus primarily on (不带作者态度的FOCUS)

4、主题题一般问法如下:
Which of the followingmost accurately states the main idea of the passage?
Which of the followingbest summarizes the main idea of the passage?
The main idea of thepassage is that……?

 一般来讲,主题题在解题过程中需要注意的是,如果答案的某一个选项只是涉及了一个人,事件,或一个具体的观点(而非主要观点),那么这时应该注意该选项不是主题题的最佳选项。例如短文中有一半以上的内容是对两种现象的比较,而在主要观点题中的答案却忽略了对两种现象的比较,那么该答案选项就过于狭窄,因此不能被列入最佳答案。我们只需通过文章理解与领会作者的意图与观点,而不是让自己的理解超越作者的意图。

主题题还可以分为内容性主题题及写法性主题题,大家可以参照上下文选择适合自己的分析方法。

内容性主题题,要分两种情况:
1、 如有明确主题句—同义变换
2、 无明确主题句—使用”三出现原则” :在主题题的正确选项中, 关键词必须出现, 细节不能出现, 新内容不能出现,有重要关键词无细节无新内容
3、 如果题目跟态度有关—则与文中态度保持一致
内容性主题题  
   ① 特征
从问法上看:如果是给文章取个 “title”,就是内容性主题题。
从选项上看:如果出现细节和重点的关键词,就是内容性主题题。  
   ② 做法
如果文章有主题句则做同义变换
如果没有主题句,问到文章内容性主题题则用三出现原则
如果主题题里问道作者持什么样的态度,那么除了满足前两点外,一定要和 文中的态度保持一致。

** 主题题型 最起码应控制住首段和二段首句,找出focus和文章结构Ⅰ找主题句做改写(最快但不常见)Ⅱ用排除法. ①首先排除有细节的选项; ②选项中是否有focus既论说对象; ③看作者态度(少数题型用),原文如果有让步,选项要么有让步要么无态度。Ⅲfocus的把握从前不从后。
标志性答案:
**a way to do 是问题解决型的主题题的标志 
注意now等时间的对比是主题题眼
** reason= an explanation 也是主题题的特殊词汇. 
Warn 不算极端词汇, 可以选.  
**要看完整个选项在做决定, 主题题不能光看第一个动词, 不可靠, 记住, 一定要看完.
**记住 illustrating a business strategy 是结论解释型的典型表达.
** 不要看见原文中有 KW 就头脑发热, 要从全文的结论解释型的结构来看
** argue 是驳论的标志词.  
** 记住outlining the factors (These techniques)这种比较抽象的主题题的说法, 
** 取非老观点也会是主题题的答案..  
**main idea题不能光看前面的动词, 很危险, 重点是看具体的内容对不对  
特别是Describe(一般用于描述, 解释一种理论, 问题的解决) 和discuss(多方才能形成讨论, 一般用于新老观点对比型)都有的时候, 一定要看清楚, 但本题正好是新老观点对比型, 所以用discuss更好.
** To cite examples也会是主题题的答案, 全文举例解释说明  
** concerning the nature of information 是现象解释型文章的典型的表达方式.
** factors 是解释型文章的答案标志 

写法性主题题套路总结特别情况:
1、organization用套路来作, 掌握新老观点对比型, 现象解释型, 问题解释型,结论解释型
2、一种特别套路:专门评述某人理论、评述某人著作, 这类文章多数属于结论解释型,少数属于现象解释型  **正确选项选专门评述某人理论、评述某人著作的话即可,

写法性主题题
① 特征
从问法上看:如果问到文章的“organization”,就是写法性主题题。
从选项上看:如果出现对文章套路的抽象概括,就是写法性主题题。
套路清晰的文章出写法性主题题,特别清晰的出“organization”。
② 做法
有一种特殊的文章专门评述某人理论、某人著作,这类文章多数属于结论解释
型,少数属于现象解释型,
但都属于“presentation”,这类文章的主题题就找评述某人理论、某人著作的
选项就可以了。写法动词总结:describe, explain, summarize, refute等

**注意问题解决型的一种结构, 常在第一段的末尾提出问题, 然后在第二断提出解决方法.

写法性: 
1) 一切要从套路出发来做。 
2) 特殊情况: 
a. Organization:文章套路“特别清晰”(板块分明)时考 
b. 特别套路:评述某人理论/著作:多数属于结论解释型,少数属于现象解释型。在做主题题的时候,直接选评述某著作这样的说法。
答案特征:
A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.  ^抓住新老观点对比
** 注意analyzed and explain是现象解释型的主题题的标志词
**Critique n. 中性的评价, 即评价的意思, 不是批评. Criticize v.批评
ETS认为critique =evaluate    
Describing, and noting --结论  
Describing a problem and proposing a solution 问题解决型的典型答案.  
** 谈优缺点的一般是evaluate 型文章  
Describing , Evaluate是结的标志
** identify a shortcoming in a scholarly approach and describe an alternativeapproach是新老观点对比型的典型表示.   OG22
**review and evaluate strategies 是写法性主题题的标志  
** explaining the importance是结论解释型的典型说法,  
explaining how , way 是问的标志   
**a way to do 是问题解决型的主题题的标志
** suggest more careful evaluation, 是结论解释型的典型说法, **比较级不一定错,
** 对approach 要熟悉, 表示研究方法.是正确答案的标志
Evaluate是评述某人著作的专用词汇
小结:
**criticize, correct, refute, challenge, 常用于新老观点对比型的写法性主题题
New , than是新老的标志
**既然是结论解释型, 则一般都有explain, Describing, evaluate, suggest, argue, warn的字样. 
**explaining how , way, Describing a problem 是问的标志, a way to do 是问题解决型的主题题的标志
**Discuss explain, present 常是现象解释型
But 一定要看完整个选项的内容再做决定, 主题题不能光看第一个动词, 不可靠, 记住, 一定要看完.

2. 关于文中的论点(观点题——细节题)

观点题测试你理解文中的论点和把支撑主题的论点与主题区分开来的能力。观点题也测试你区分作者在文中明确陈述的观点和在文中间接表达而不是直接陈述的观点的能力。观点题可能会问到文中引用的事实,作者用来支持自己观点的论据的细枝末节,或者用来支持或阐述中心思想的描述性细节。主题题要求你推断整篇文章的主题,而观点题则要求你确定对主题做出贡献的单独句子或段落的含义。一种解题思路是把观点题看作要求归纳文章的某一小部分的中心思想。
这类题型主要考察对细节信息的处理能力,具体上说,这类题型所给出的五个选项中总会有一个选项在文章的某处被提及或未被提及过,建议在阅读文章的过程中,记录下一个简明的题纲,这样可以帮助你很快找到所需的信息。只要文章中出现了列举,那么我们就可以将列举处的信息记录下来。另外在这里容易出现一个认识误区,即认为有关文章的列举信息或内容,答案会逐字重复文中的列举内容,然而选项通常不会与文章的内容一模一样,选项给出的内容只是对文中列举的内容进行的解释和说明或着说是改写。

例:In large part as a consequence of the feministmovement, historians have focused a great deal of attention in recent years ondetermining more accurately the status of women in various periods. Althoughmuch has been accomplished for the modern period, premodern cultures haveproved more difficult:sources are restricted in number, fragmentary, difficultto interpret, and often contradictory.Thus it is not particularly surprisingthat some earlier scholarship concerning such cultures has so far goneunchallenged. An example is Johann Bachofen’s 1861 treatise on Amazons,women-ruled societies of questionable existence contemporary withancientGreece.
All of the followingare stated by the author as problems connected with the sources for knowledgeof premodern cultures EXCEPT
(A) partialcompleteness
(B) restrictedaccessibility
(C) difficulty ofinterpretation
(D) limited quantity
(E) tendency towardcontradiction

本题的出题点针对文中的斜体划线部分的文字内容,本题选项中提及了与文中举例部分不相关的内容,从而混淆了识别文章段落信息的能力,象本题一样,我们可以将四个选项与文中的四个列举对应起来,剩下的那个选项则为我们要选的正确答案。(A)partial completeness=fragmentary;(C)difficulty of interpretation=difficult to interpret; (D) limitedquantity=restricted in number; (E) tendency toward contradiction=oftencontradictory.因此我们可以从中得出结论,只有B选项在文中没有对应的内容。

另:
Except题型题目描述:
all of the flowing statements are supported by the passage except:
特征:ABCDE给的都是分散在文章里的细节,需要全篇定位,测试短时间的记忆能力
做题关键:
OG的题目和解释中经常提醒我们要学会改写,将不同外观的词汇或短语的意思联系在一起

3.关于基于文中给出信息的推论(推导题)

推导题问的不是文中那些明确陈述而是作者强烈暗示的那部分。与观点题不一样,观点题问的是文中直接陈述的内容,推导题则问的是需要对文中直接陈述的内容进行推演才能得出的观点或含义。作者使用间接的方式来阐述,在不具体陈述的情况下提出观点。推导题测试你推断在作者只是暗示的那一部分所意图表达的观点的能力。推导题问的不是那些文章中蕴含的生僻含义或者暗示,而是那些作者间接铺陈的含义或者特别暗示。

要回答这些问题,你可能需要进一步以超越作者陈述所表达的字面含义,或者需要认识到作者陈述的对立面或者相对应的一面,或者需要辨别文中使用的一个象征词的意图。例如,如果文章明确地给出了一个结果,你可能会被要求推导导致它的原因;如果作者比较两个现象,你可能会被要求推导比较的基础或根据;你可能会被要求从一个明确给出的新的政策的描述推导出老政策的特征。因此,当你阅读一篇文章的时候,应该不仅仅关注作者的话所明确表达的意思,还要关注这些话所暗示的更为微妙的意思。

例:Ironically, itwasHandsomeLakewho can be credited with reviving the Iroquois culture.Lake, thealcoholic half-brother of Seneca Cornplanter, perhaps the most outspokenproponent among the Iroquois for assimilation of white customs andinstitutions, was a former member of the Great Council of Iroquois nations.Inspired by a near-death vision in 1799, Lake established a new religion amongthe Iroquois which tied the more useful aspects of Christianity to traditionalIndian beliefs and customs.

Among the followingreasons, it is most likely that the author considers Handsome Lake’s leading arevival of the Iroquois culture to be“ironic”because
(A) he was a formermember of the Great Council
(B) he was not afull-blooded relative of Seneca Cornplanter
(C) he was related byblood to a chief proponent of assimilation
(D) Seneca CornplanterwasLake’s alcoholic half-brother
(E) His religious beliefsconflicted with traditional Iroquois beliefs.

在文章中,作者使用“Ironically”作为段落的开头,而该题目针对这“Ironically”进行发问,透过文章,我们可以知道“Cornplanterwas an outspoken proponent of assimilation and that Handsome Lake was relatedto Cornplanter as a half-brother.”既然Cornplanter是吸收白人文化及制度的积极倡导者和支持着,而Handsome Lake与Cornplanter是half-brother的关系,因此,只能说有关“Lake was responsible fro the Iroquoisreasserting their national identity”这个事实是具有讽刺意味的。

例:Some people with a Bachelor’s degree are eligiblefor the intership program with the district attorney’s office. If a personmeets the eligibility requirements for the program, that person is likely togain admission to the local law school if he or she applies, whether or notthat person actually participates in the internship program. However, no personwithout a Bachelor’s degree is eligible to participate in the internshipprogram.
If the statementsabove are all true, which of the following is properly inferred from them?
C. Some people with aBachelor’s degree are likely to gain admission to the local law school if theyapply.
D.All people eligible forthe internship program hold Bachelor degrees.

对于这一类题目
问的是inferred。意思是找出隐含的关系。D正好是可以从原文直接得出的,所以先排除C的推理过程。Bachelor’sdegree 是进入intership program 的前提。而进入intership program  是apply 并且gain admission 的前提。所以 Bachelor’sdegree是apply 并且gain admission 的前提。

以下附imply和infer的区别
imply
Function:transitive verb 
Etymology:Middle English emplien, from Anglo-French emplier to entangle — moreat  EMPLOY
Date:14th century
1 obsolete   : ENFOLD, ENTWINE
2 :to involve or indicate by inference, association, or necessaryconsequence rather than by direct statement  
3 : to contain potentially
4 : to express indirectly  

infer
Function:verb 
Etymology:Middle French or Latin; Middle French inferer, from Latin inferre,literally, to carry or bring into, from in- + ferre to carry — more at BEAR
Date:1528
transitive verb  
1 : to derive asa conclusion from facts or premises   —  compare IMPLY
2 : GUESS, SURMISE  
3 a : to involve as a normal outcome of thought  b : to pointout  : INDICATE    
4 : SUGGEST, HINT  
intransitive verb   : to draw inferences  
usage Sir Thomas More is the firstwriter known to have used both infer and imply in their approved senses (1528).He is also the first to have used infer in a sense close in meaning to imply(1533). Both of these uses of infer coexisted without comment until some timearound the end of World War I. Since then, senses3 and 4 of infer have been frequently condemned as an undesirable blurring of auseful distinction.The actual blurring has been done by thecommentators. Sense 3, descended from More's use of 1533, does not occur with apersonal subject. When objections arose, they were to a use with a personalsubject (now sense 4). Since dictionaries did not recognize this usespecifically, the objectors assumed that sense 3 was the one they foundillogical, even though it had been in respectable use for four centuries. Theactual usage condemned was a spoken one never used in logical discourse. Atpresent sense 4 is found in print chiefly in letters to the editor and otherinformal prose, not in serious intellectual writing. The controversy over sense4 has apparently reduced the frequency of use of sense 3.

4. 关于文中的信息如何适用于文章以外的环境(类比题)

类比题测试你区分作者所阐述的情形或观点和与之相应的情形或观点之间的关系的能力。类比题可能要求你找出一个假设的情形,这个情形与文中阐述的情形相似,相对应或者可比较;或者要求你把文中阐述的观点适用于一个作者没有提到过的情形;或者要求你根据文中的阐述识别作者可能赞成或者反对的观点。
与推断题不同,类比题使用的是文中没有的观点或情形。题中的观点或情形类似于并且对应于文中提到的观点或情形。因此,要回答这类问题,你要做的不能仅限于回忆你所读到的。你必须深刻认识到文中表述的观点或情形的实质属性,这样当它们以不同的词语的形式出现在完全陌生的环境中时你就可以迅速把它们识别出来。
这种题型不是很常见。通常说来,它出现的方式是,以下哪个选项的描述与原文的叙述相似。碰到这种题的时候,不要贸然看选项,而要先注意题干的提炼。也就是原文的事例到底是怎样一种情况。请注意阅读中的类比和GRE词汇中的类比区别在于:它只是一种大致含义的相似,而不是精细的词义对仗。所以,它比后者容易。 

例:Traditionally, the first firm to commercialize anew technology has benefited from the unique opportunity to shape productdefinitions, forcing followers to adapt to a standard or invest in an unprovenalternative. Today, however, the largest payoffs may go to companies that leadin developing integrated approaches for successful mass production anddistribution. Producers of the Beta format for videocassette recorders(VCR’s),for example, were first to develop the VCR commercially in 1975, but producersof the rival VHS (Video Home System) format proved to be more successful at formingstrategic alliances with other producers and distributors to manufacture andmarket their VCR format Seeking to maintain exclusive control over VCRdistribution. Beta producers were reluctant to form such alliances andeventually lost ground to VHS in the competition for the global VCR market. DespiteBeta’s substantial technological head start and the fact that VHS was neithertechnically better nor cheaper than Beta, developers of VHS quickly turned aslight early lead in sales into a dominant position. Strategic alignments withproducers of prerecorded tapes reinforced the VHS advantage. The perceptionamong consumers that prerecorded tapes were more available in VHS formatfurther expanded VHS’s share of the market. By the end of the 1980’s. Beta wasno longer in production.

99. The alignment ofproducers of VHS-format VCR’s with producers of prerecorded videotapes is mostsimilar to which of the following?
(A)   Thealignment of an automobile manufacturer with another automobile manufacturer toadopt a standard design for automobile engines.
(B)   Thealignment of an automobile manufacturer with an automotive glass companywhereby the manufacturer agrees to purchase automobile windshields only fromthat one glass company
(C)   Thealignment of an automobile manufacturer with a petroleum company to ensure thewidespread availability of the fuel required by a new type of engine developedby the manufacturer.
(D)  Thealignment of an automobile manufacturer with its dealers to adopt a plan toimprove automobile design.
(E)   Thealignment of an automobile dealer with an automobile rental chain to adopt astrategy for an advertising campaign to promote a new type of automobile

主要问题在于,原文的意思是tapes are more in VHS than that in BETA,即在tapes可以供给给VHS和BETA两种制式的情况下,但是由于战略联盟,tape支持VHS多一些,也就是更多的tapes使用VHS制式,以使得VHS制式的录像机有更多的tapes片源;C答案中fuel=tapes,new type ofengine=VHS,即tapes(fuel)支持VHS(engine),所以跟原文最符合;B答案windshields=tapes,automobile company=VHScompany,"the manufacturer agrees to purchase automobile windshields onlyfrom that one glass company"即等于说VHS(automobile company)支持tapes(windshields),跟原文恰好相反了。所以B错,C对。

5.关于文章的逻辑结构(结构题)

结构题要求你分析和评价文章的组织和逻辑。结构题可能会问到一篇文章是如何构造的。例如,哪里在定义;哪里在进行比较和对照;哪里在表达新观点;哪里在反驳一个观点。结构题也可能会问到作者是如何说服读者接受自己的主张的,或者作者使用某个特别的支撑细节的原因。结构题还可能要求你识别作者所做的假设,或者要求你评估作者的论证的力度和缺陷,或者要求你找出合适的驳论。结构题不仅测试你理解文章的能力,还测试你准确地评价文章的能力。然而,对你来说非常重要的是你必须明白,这类问题既不需要你依赖于任何规整的逻辑,也不需要你熟悉逻辑和论证方面的专门术语。你回答这些问题,只需要用到文中所提到的信息并进行仔细的推理。

Types of logicalstructures often used in GMAT
1. A comparison orcontrast between two events, ideas, phenomena or people.
2. One theory or idea illustrated with several detailed examples or illustrations(often one example or illustration per paragraph)
3. One theory or idea supported by several arguments (often one argumentper paragraph)
4. Several theories or approaches to a single question or topic (often onetheory or approach per paragraph)
5. Pro and Con arguments presented on both sides of a single issue 
6. A cause-effect sequence showing how one event led to another (presentedeither in chronological order or via flashback with later events named beforethe earlier ones)

例:Passage 20 (20/63)
Speciesinterdependence in nature confers many benefits on the species involved, but itcan also become a point of weakness
when one species involved in the relationship is affected by a catastrophe. Thus,flowering plant species dependent on insect pollination, as opposed toself-pollination or wind pollination, could be endangered when the populationof insect-pollinators is depleted by the use of pesticides.
(第一段:物种的相互依赖使受益很多互相依赖的物种,但是这种相互依赖的的缺点:当其中一种物种受到灾难时体现。例如花粉的物种)
In theforests of New Brunswick(名字要记住,简记为NB-举例,预期下面要出细节题), forexample, various pesticides have been sprayed in the past 25 years in effortsto control the spruce budworm, an economically significant pest. Scientistshave now investigated the effects of the spraying of Matacil,one of the anti-budworm agents that is leasttoxic(比较举例分析的这种spraying和其它的spraying的关系,预期有比较关系,做推断的题)toinsect-pollinators. They studied Matacil’s effects on insect mortality in awide variety of wild insect species and on plant fecundity,expressedas the percentage of the total flowers on an individual plant that actuallydeveloped fruit and bore seeds.(我读出要授粉后才会产生果实,所以用果实的percentage来读出fecundity这个词和pollination产生关系,那么逻辑图:spraying
影响insect-pollinator,主要是减少,->减少授粉->果实减少)They found that the most pronounced mortality after the spraying of Matacil occurred among thesmaller bees and one family of flies, insects that were all importantpollinators of numerous species of plants growing beneath the tree canopy offorests. The fecundity of plants in one common indigenous species, thered-osier dogwood, was significantly reduced in the sprayed areas as comparedto that of plants in control plots where Matacil was not sprayed. This speciesis highly dependent on the insect-pollinators most vulnerable to Matacil. Thecreeping dogwood, a species similar to the red-osier dogwood, but which ispollinated by large bees, such as bumblebees, showed no significant decline infecundity. Since large bees are not affected by the spraying of Matacil, theseresults add weight to the argument that spraying where the pollinators aresensitive to the pesticide used decreases plant fecundity.
(第二段:NB用spraying的M情况举例:两方面对比受影响和未受影响的物种论述,得到(加强)结论:对于spraying敏感的授粉对象,spraying后植物多样行下降)
The question of whether the decrease in plant fecunditycaused by the spraying of pesticides actually causes a decline in the overallpopulation of flowering plant species still remains unanswered.
(第三段的中心意思)Plantspecies dependent solely on seeds for survival or dispersal are obviously morevulnerable to any decrease in plant fecundity that occurs, whatever its cause.If, on the other hand, vegetative growth and dispersal (by means of shoots orrunners) are available as alternative reproductive strategies for a species,then decreases in plant fecundity may be of little consequence. The fecundityeffects described here are likely to have the most profound impact on plant specieswith allfour of the following characteristics(列举一般下面会出题):
a shortlife span, a narrow geographic range, an incapacity for vegetative propagation,and a dependence on a small number of insect-pollinator species.
Perhapswe should give special attention to the conservation of such plant speciessince they lack key factors in their defenses against the environmentaldisruption caused by pesticide use.
(第三段:对前面的结论提出质疑(逻辑结构严密的体现):由于spraying的作用使植物多样性下降是否真的使整体的花粉植物的总数下降?->会受到影响的物种/不会受到影的物种->物种多样性易受影响的植物的四个特点->对保护物种的建议。其实这段主要还是在论述关于易受影响的物种。对于前面的观点-相互依赖的物种的弱点引申出的话题)

1.   Which of the following best summarizesthe main point of the passage?
(A) Species interdependence is a point of weakness for someplants, but is generally beneficial to insects involved in pollination.
(B) Efforts to control the spruce budworm have had deleteriouseffects on the red-osier dogwood.
(C) The used of pesticides may be endangeringcertain plant species dependent on insects for pollination.
(D) The spraying of pesticides can reduce the fecundity of aplant species, but probably does not affect its overall population stability.
(E) Plant species lacking key factors in their defenses againsthuman environmental disruption will probably become extinct.

2.   According to the author, a floweringplant species whose fecundity has declined due to pesticide spraying may notexperience an overall population decline if the plant species can do which ofthe following?
(A) Reproduce itself by means of shoots and runners.
(B) Survive to the end of the growing season.
(C) Survive in harsh climates.
(D) Respond to the fecundity decline by producing more flowers.
(E) Attract large insects as pollinators.

3.   The passage suggests that the lack ofan observed decline in the fecundity of the creeping dogwood strengthens theresearchers conclusions regarding pesticide use because the
(A) creeping dogwood is a species that does not resemble otherforest plants
(B) creeping dogwood is a species pollinated by a broader rangeof insect species than are most dogwood species
(C) creeping dogwood grows primarily in regions that were notsprayed with pesticide, and so served as a control for the experiment
(D) creeping dogwood is similar to the red-osier dogwood, but itsinsect pollinators are known to be insensitive to the pesticide used in thestudy
(E) geographical range of the creeping dogwood is similar tothat of the red-osier dogwood, but the latter species relies less on seeds forreproduction

4.   The passage suggests that which of thefollowing is true of the forest regions in
NewBrunswick
sprayed with mostanti-budworm pesticides other than Matacil?(可定位的细节题)
(A) The fecundity of some flowering plants in those regions may havedecreased to an even greater degree than in the regions where Matacil is used.
(M是least toxic的spraying,通过studyM’s effect found fecundity受影响和未受影响的species,结论:授粉者容易受到pesticide影响的会减少植物多样性)。
(B) Insect mortality in those regions occurs mostly among thelarger species of insects, such as bumblebees.
(C) The number of seeds produced by common plant species inthose regions is probably comparable to the number produced where Matacil is sprayed.(seed是第三段提到的内容,第二段还没有出现,排除)
(D) Many more plant species have become extinct in those regionsthan in the regions where Matacil is used.
(E) The spruce budworm is under better control in those regionsthan in the regions where Matacil is sprayed.

5.   It can be inferred that which of thefollowing is true of plant fecundity as itis defined in the passage?(答案一般出现在这个词出现第一次的地方)
(A) A plant’s fecundity decreases as the percentage of unpollinatedflowers on the plant increases.(原文的论述也有percentage,要小心,比较关系叙述是否正确,比较关系容易出逻辑推理,一般是考点,此处是和原文表述同一个意思,但是时相反的论述)
(B) A plant’s fecundity decreases as the number of flowersproduced by the plant decreases.
(C) A plant’s fecundity increases as the number of flowersproduced by the plant increases.
(D) A plant’s fecundity is usually low if the plant relies on asmall number of insect species for pollination.
(E) A plant’s fecundity is high if the plant can reproducequickly by means of vegetative growth as well as by the production of seeds.

6.   It can be inferred from the passagethat which of the following plant species would be LEAST likely to experience adecrease in fecundity as a result of the spraying of a pesticide not directlytoxic to plants?
(A) A flowering tree pollinated by only a few insect species
(B) A kind of insect-pollinated vine producing few flowers
(C) A wind-pollinated flowering tree that is short-lived
(D) A flowering shrub pollinated by a large number of insectspecies
(E) A type of wildflower typically pollinated by larger insects

7.   Which of the following assumptionsmost probably underlies the author’s tentative recommendation in lines51-54?
(A) Human activities that result in environmental disruption shouldbe abandoned.
(B) The use of pesticides is likely to continue into the future.
(C) It is economically beneficial to preserve endangered plantspecies.
(D) Preventing the endangerment of a species is less costly thantrying to save an already endangered one.
(E) Conservation efforts aimed at preserving a few well-chosenspecies are more cost-effective than are broader-based efforts to improve theenvironment.


Summary:逻辑结构:
提出观点(关于植物依赖性)->进一步阐述,加强结论->提出质疑,分析提出建议

6. 关于文章的风格和基调(态度题)

态度题主要涉及文章使用的语言和作者通过这些语言所表达出的态度。
态度题可能要求你从作者的态度演绎出一个观点,一个事实,或者一个情形;也可能要求你选择一个准确描述文章基调的词语——例如,“批评”,“质疑”,“客观”,或者“满腔热情”。要回答这类问题,你必须把文章看作一个整体——文章通常使用好几个尖锐的批评词汇就会铸就整篇文章的“批评”基调。


例:Cartier-Bresson has expressed his passion forportrait photography by characterizing it as“a duel without rules, a delicaterape.”Such metaphors contrast quite sharply with Richard Avedon’s conception ofa sitting. While Cartier-Bresson reveals himself as an interloper andopportunist, Avedon confesses---perhaps uncomfortably---to a role asdiagnostician and (by implication) psychic healer: not as someone whonecessarily transforms his subjects, but as someone who reveals their essentialnature.
The author of thepassage quotes Cartier-Bresson in order to
(A) refute Avedon’sconception of a portrait sitting
(B) provide oneperspective of the portraiture encounter
(C) support the claimthat portrait sittings are, more often than not, confrontational encounters
(D) show that aportraiture encounter can be either brief or extended
(E) distinguish asitting for a photographic portrait from a sitting for a painted portrait.

在文中,作者指出了Cartier-Bresson的观点与Avedon观点不同,因而我们可以从文中提供的两种观点来判定出本题的正确选项为(B),作者援引Cartier-Bresson的目的是为了引出有关创作肖像作品时的另外一种“画者与被画者”之间新的互动观点。

态度题我们只需在阅读时把握作者对他所叙述的事物或人是正面还是负面态度,至于具体是极力鞭挞、双手赞成还是略加保留,都不用太加留意,只是有时作者态度复杂,正负都有(多是一种为主,另一种以让步的形式在文中出现)。这类考题亦与文章结构有十分紧密的关系。从态度词入手一般比较短平快。正如rakesun网友的总结所说,GMAT里就没用过极端的词,大家甚至可以在明白作者基本态度(褒或贬)的基础上,随便选一个温和的褒或贬的词90%以上是对的。

一、按选项中态度词来筛选:

第一类、慎重选择(通常不选)
a,中庸(无态度),例如:indifferent,ambivalent,resigned,light-hearted,detached,factious,neutral,disinterested,impartial
b,攻击,例如:condemnation,indigent,envious,cynical,spiteful
c,表示绝对的,例如:complete,entire,total,absolute,unrestricted,unchecked
d,热情,例如:fanatical,fervent,adulatory

第二类 常选词
qualified,guarded,tempered,partial,reluctant,limited,incomplete

第三类 极端词(不太可能为正确选项)
a.过褒:adulatory (拍马屁),fervent(炙热的),fanatical(狂热的)
b.过贬:angry, envious(嫉恨的),indignant(愤恨的),insincere (虚假/不真实的),ironic, dogmatic(教条的),condemnation(强烈谴责),derision(嘲弄),defiance(蔑视),scornful(鄙夷),cynical(愤世嫉俗),spiteful(痛恨的),callous(无情的),offensive, reproach, stilted(僵硬的)
c. 过淡:indifference, resigned (听由天命),detached(超然),neutrality, light-hearted(无忧无虑的),jocular=factious(诙谐滑稽的),amusement, ambivalence(有矛盾心理的),tender, ambiguous(模棱两可)

二、按文章中的态度词来选,这个方法还可适用于主旨题
--负态度
*Verb:
fail to, ignore,overlook, neglect, overestimate, underestimate, exaggerate, misrepresent,misinterpret, obscure, reexamine, reinterpret, reconsider, should be expanded,can not explain, based only on…, awaits further study, remain to beanswered, remain unresolved
*Adj./Adv.:
Curiously,problematic, disappointed, inadequate, imprecise, unwarranted, premature,untenable(站不住脚的),unhappily, unfortunately,(表遗憾),unreliable, negligible, not the wholeexplanation, no reason to do, be careful about=be wary of , not adequate,undermined, not yet…researched/studied/explored, unworthy, aridly(沉闷地,无趣地),woefully(悲伤地, 不幸地),disappointed,inadequate, imprecise, unwarranted, premature, fanciful=fantastic (稀奇古怪的), cavalier(傲慢的),discouraging,disproved, misleading, problematic, unpleasant, shocking, misplaced,erroneously, impractical, willy-nilly(不管愿意不愿意,不容分辨的),unreliable, unconvincing, dubious(可疑的, 不确定的), unclear,weak, curiously, precipitously(急躁地,突然地), naïve, puzzling, deficient(缺乏的, 不足的, 不完善的), curse,bitter, careless
*Noun:
Omission, critique, rush,litter value, revision, disagreement, danger
**虚拟语气:
Would be+正态度词,would havefurther strengthened
*引号
负评价(/引用/强调)

-正态度词
* Verb: prove,confirm, benefit, support, impressed with, make it possible
* Adj./Adv.: cogent,valid, exciting, rightly, enlightening, pioneering, feasible, successful,valuable
* Noun: success, oneway out of dilemma
***注意:significant,ideal—中性词

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Part B 实战演示

原文

1)Two recent publications offer different assessment of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale.(主题句,由此句和三段首句可知本文是结论解释型文章,即主要特点是总分式)A book by Anne Summers(观点之一)seeks to debunk (负评价的实义动词)the idealizations and present a reality(正评价词)at odds with Nightingale’s heroic reputation. According to Summers, Nightingale’s importance during the Crimean War(和观点二比较的差别点)
has been exaggerated(负评价的实义动词):not until near the war’s end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally,(递进副词,表示行文方向一致,因此后面内容可以略读,仅提炼关键词即可,或不读)Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizaitonal pratices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than symbolic. Nightingale’s place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is lrgely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters.(以上略读)
2)By contrast(重要的强转折词,注意对比方/观点的差异点),the editors(对比观点二)of a new volume of Nightingale’s letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced(正评价词)not only her own age but also subsequenct generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war(观点二比较的差别点,和观点一中during the Crimean War对比,这一句是后面举例的总结句,重要,知道总结句可以不用看后面的例子。).For example,(举例通常可以略读,只提取例子中的关键词,如peacetime living conditions,举例的关键看前后的总结句,这里是for example 前面的一句话,因为例子都是用来说明总结句的,只要明白总结句的意思就行了。)when she leanred that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exeeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses’ traning hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert, her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army’s medical services were still using the cost-accounting system she had devised in the 1860’s.(以上略读)
3)I believe that the evidence of her letters supports(正评价词)continued respect for Nightingale’s brilliance and creativity(正评价词). (总结句后举例说明,提取关键字,略读)When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation, she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers.(以上略读)In sum(文章最后一句话通常要仔细读,此处为总结句),although(让步略读,重点是让步后的转折句)Nightingale may not have achieved all of her goals during the Crimean War,her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects haveearned(正评价词)her an eminent(正评价词)place among the ranks of social pioneers.(重点读,表明作者对以上两个不同观点的评述)
题目:
注意我怎么定位的,题干、选项和原文原句的对应线索我用相同颜色标注,题干中的定位依据的关键词我用下划线标注:
73. The passage is primarily concerned with evaluating
(A) the importance of Florence Nightingale’s innovations in the field of nursing 
(B) contrasting approaches to the writing of historical biography
(C)contradictory accounts of Florence Nightingale’s historical significance
(D) the quality of health care in nineteenth-century England
(E) the effect of the Crimean War on developments in the field of health care
主题题,直接定位首段首句主题句:Two recent publications offer different assessment of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale

74. According to the passage, the editors(定位在观点二出现段)of Nightingale’s letters credit(正评价的实义动词,将定位进一步限制在观点二中的正评价处,即找贡献)
her with contributing to which of the following?
(A) Improving of the survival rate for soldiers in British Army hospitals during the Crimean War(时间状语为观点一的内容,观点二的比较点在after the war,大胆排除)
(B) The development of a nurses’ training curriculum(原文未出现,排除)that was far in advance of its day
(C) The increase in the number of women doctors(原文未出现,排除)practicing in British Army hospitals
(D) Establishment of the first(极端词文章没有,选项出现,排除!)facility for traiing nurses at a major British university
(E) The creation of an organization for monitoring the peacetime living conditions of British soldiers
原文对应:she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army.
直接事实题,定位在2)段,for example 后具体内容中,此题重点在于对于文中未出现的信息的果断排除,千万不要超出文章半步的猜测。

75. The passage suggests which of the following about Nightingale’s relationship with the British public(定位在二段举例中,观点一或其他段落未谈到)of her day?
(A) She was highly respected, her projects receiving popular and governmental support. 
(B) She encountered resistance both from the army establishment and the general public. 
(C) She was supported by the working classes and opposed by the wealthier classes. 
(D) She was supported by the military establishment but had to fight the governmental bureaucracy. 
(E) After intially being received with enthusiams, she was quickly forgotten. She used sums raised through publiccontributions to found a nurses’ traning hospital in London.
原文中唯一有public这个词的句子只有一处,确定无疑。

76. The passage suggests which of the following about sanitary conditions in Britain after the Crimean War(重要的定位依据,说明是观点二的内容,所以我以前说,对题干的提炼一定要注意,即使只是一个时间状语)?
(A) While not ideal, they were superior to those in other parts of the world.
(B) Compared with conditions before the war, they had deteriorated.
(C) They were more advanced in rural areas than in the urban centers.
(D) They were worse in military camps than in the neighboring civilian populations. 
(E) They were unifromaly crude and unsatisfactory throughout England.
(They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example,)when she leanred that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exeeded that ofneighboring civilian populations,....

77. Which of the following statements regarding the differing interpretations of Nightingale’s importance would the author most likely agree(定位于作者的观点,作者观点的总结句,而不是文中提到的两个观点)? 
(A) Summers misunderstood both the importance of Nightingale’s achievements during the Crimean War and her subsequent influence on British policy.
(B) The editors of Nightingale’s letters made some valid points about her practical achievements, but they still exaggerated her influence on subsequent genrations. 
(C) Although Summers’ account of Nightingale’s role in the Crimean War may be accurate, she ignored evidence of Nightingales’ subsequent achievement
that suggests that her reputation as an eminent social reformer is welldeserved.
定位于文末最后一句,关于作者对两个观点的总结句:
In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all of her goals during the Crimean War(观点一内容), her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.
(D) The editors of Nightingale’s letters mistakenly propagated the outdated idealization of Nightingale that only impedes attempts to arrive at a balance assessment of her true role. 
(E) The evidence of Nightingale’s letters supports Summers’ conclusions both about Nightingale’s activities and about her influence.

78. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the author’s assessment of Nightingale’s creativity(定位关键词,三段首句中,所以读原文注意评价词!)? 
(A) Educational philosophy in Nightingale’s day did not normally emphasize developing children’s ability to observe. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation, she sounds like a modern educator.
(B) Nightingale was the first to notice the poor living conditions in British military barracks in peacetime. 
(C)No educator before Nightingale had thought to enlist the help of village school masters in introducing new teaching techniques. 
(D)Until Nightingale began her work, there was no concept of organized help for the needy in nineteenth-century Britain.
(E) The British Army’s medical services had no cost-accounting system until Nightingale devised one in the 1860’s.
本题注意细节的排除,坚决按照原文信息!原文未出现的信息坚决不能选!尤其注意极端词汇!(以上选项中划线部分都是排除的依据)

79.In the last paragraph(直接定位), the author is primarily concerned with 
(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs
(B) refuting the view of Nightingale’s career presented in the preceding pargraph 
(C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence presented elsewhere in the passage 
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale’s career
(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review
段落作用题,需要建立在框架把握的基础上,第三段和前两段的关系如何?从首句或末句判断。
I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale’s brilliance and creativity.
以上的答案是我刚做的,如果有不对的,请MM给我指出来.
按照老师传授的方法,第一遍读完,我会做这样的总结(老师叫做"逻辑简图",其实简单的框架图就好,不用花太多时间像你以前那样总结.)

逻辑简图
1) 对N贡献评价有两个不同观点+第一个观点: TS(主题句), AS (Anne Summers),during the Crimean War,exaggerated ( — )
2)第二个观点:By contrast, Editors, significantly influenced(+),after the war,for examples
3)作者的观点:I believe....supports(+)...brillianceand creativity(+).In sum,eminent(+)
这种逻辑简图简单实用,其实就是总结每段的段意、段内标志文章承转起合的重要的连接词、态度词,帮助你了解文章框架,把握重要的由连接词引出的出题点。
另:从本文你可以看出,一定要培养对关键的连词和作者态度词的重视和敏感!

以及:

对于很多人在阅读速度上面遇到了一些困境,除了技巧以外,就是基本功了,单词没问题,句子一遍读懂,以词组为单位阅读,阅读速度就会上去。剩下基本只要看justification。examples和evaluation之类的可以略读。根据问题所问回原文定位,然后答题,通读全文时间肯定是不够的。例如scientists believe that...这句肯定是观点句,可以精读,而例如these kind of materials...这句出现了these,这个these必然指代前一句的东西,所以是对前一句的进一步补充说明,大多数情况可以跳过不读或是略读。
最后编辑于:2012-07-27 11:47
分类: 考研英语

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