雅思阅读多变的同义替换考点解析

发表于:2012-08-10 14:43 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

 

(一)词与词的替换

词与词的替换包括同义词和近义词以及前缀的变化,目的就是考查同学们是否有迅速把两个相近的单词意思联系起来的能力,也就是考查快速提取信息的能力。

1. C4T1P1 It has been ¹suggested that child ²hold mistaken views about the ³'pure' science that they study at school. 根据'pure'定位到文中第二段第一行Many studies have shown that children harbour misconceptions about 'pure' science, curriculum science. 短短一句话我们可以发现有三组四处同义替换,分别为suggested-shown; hold-harbour; mistaken views-misconceptions; science that they study at school-curriculum science. 因此答案为TRUE。

2. C4T4P1 John S. Raglin believes our current knowledge of athletics is
A. mistaken
B. basic
C. diverse
D. theoretical

解析:根据人名John S. Raglin定位到文中最后一段 'Once you study athletics, you learn that it's a vexingly complex issue,'says John S. Raglin, a sports psychologist at Indiana University.' Core performance is not a simple or mundane thing of higher, faster, longer......., and our understanding in many cases is fundamental. Fundamental为basic的近义词,意为“基础的,基本的,初步的”。

3. C5T4P3 Some types of bird can be encouraged to breed out of season.

解析:根据名词bird定位到文中第二段第七行For example, some species of birds' breeding can be induced even in the midwinter simply by increasing day length artificially. 题目与原文的句子结构一致,只是替换了个别单词,types换成了species; encouraged换成了induced, 很显然答案为TRUE。

(二)词性的变化

词性的变化是指用同一个单词的不同形式来暗示答案的出处。

1. C5T2P2 _________become active too.
解析:只有三个单词,去掉系动词become和副词too, 只能拿active作为考点来去解题,根据句子结构来看,空格处缺少一个主语,同时要注意的是如果是可数名词作主语的话,一般用复数。根据上下文定位到文中的But there was also activity in the temporal lobes at the side of the head and in many other brain areas.很容易把active与activity对应上,用too替换also, 句子用there be句型引出,很容易看出答案为temporal lobes。

2. C6T2P2 This is largely due to developments in medicine, but other factors such as improved _____may also play a part.
解析:根据文章的上下文我们可以定位到文中But there may be other contributing factors.Improvements in childhood nutrition in the first quarter of the twentieth century, for example, gave today's elderly people a better start in life than their predecessors.很显然improved与improvement是词性转化,空格应该填一个名词,答案为nutrition.

3. C6T3P3 Theory 1: cells less damaged by disease because fewer_____ are emitted.
解析:根据Theory 1定位到文中One possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery's emission of free radicals. 找出词性转化,便得出答案为free radicals。

(三)单词与词组和词组与词组的替换
此替换考查学生对近义词组的转化能力。

1. C5T2P1 There were several reasons for the research into plastics in the nineteenth century, among them the great advances that had been made in the field of _____and the search for alternatives to natural resources like ivory.

解析:根据nineteenth century定位到文中第二段......The impetus behind the development of these early plastics was generated by a number of factors- immense technological progress in the domain of chemistry,.......其中,in the field of意思等同于in the domain of“在....领域”,因此答案为chemistry。

2. C6T1P3 In recent years, many of them have been obliged to give up their _____ lifestyle, but they continue to depend mainly on _____ for their food and clothes.

解析:根据上下文定位到文中Over the past 40 years, most have abandoned their nomadic ways and settled in the territory's 18 isolated communities, but they still rely heavily on nature to provide food and clothing. 本题的替换很明显也很简单,因为大多数同学都认识abandon, 更知道give up是“放弃”的意思,属于单词与词组的替换,因此第一个空填nomadic, lifestyle“生活方式”与ways替换,depend mainly on与rely heavily on属于词组与词组的替换,意为“依赖......”,答案为nature。

3. C6T4P3 Playground supervision will be more effective if members of staff are trained to recognise the difference between bullying and mere______.

解析:根据上下文定位到文中E段最后Work in the playground is important, too. One helpful step is to train lunchtime supervisors to distinguish bullying from playful fighting.题中句型为recognise the difference between A and B“区分A与B”, 文中句型为distinguish A from B, 同义,答案为playful fighting。

(四)主动语态和被动语态的转化

1. C5T1P1 As a reward for his hard work, he was granted a _____ by the king.

解析:根据the king定位到文中最后一段The Dictionary, together with his other writing, made Johnson famous and so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George III to offer him a pension. 被动语态的基本结构:主语+be+动词过去分词+by, 与文中主动语态对应上,答案为pension“养老金,退休金”。

2. C7T1P1 Radar is an inaccurate term when referring to bats because _____ are not used in their navigation system.

解析:根据上下文定位到文中It is technically incorrect to talk about bat 'radar', since they do not use radio waves. 很显然被动语态的主语在文中为主动语态的宾语,答案为radio waves。

分类: 考研英语

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