名师总结十六句口诀根治“语法病”

ke1021 (谈小飞) 路人甲
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发表于:2012-05-11 14:52 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

一、不定式、动名词作宾语的四种情况

不定式、动名词作宾语情况复杂多变,不少学习者感到颇为“闹心”。它们是各类考试的重心,也是中国学生丢分的“重灾区”。其症结在于考生拿不准到底哪些动词必须以动名词作宾语;哪些动词必须以不定式作宾语;有些动词既可以动名词宾语,也可用不定式作宾语,意思基本不变;有些动词既可以动名词宾语,也可用不定式作宾语,意思却不同?

口诀1:有些动词须以动名词宾语,它们可用“MP\4r\ café\ disk”来记,即“宪兵带着4把手枪在咖啡馆里看光盘”(把字母r想象成手枪)。

M指mind, miss, mention

例:When I mention playing football, he says he's too busy.

P指prevent, permit, postpone, pardon, practice

例:We don't permit smoking in the office.

4R指risk, resist, resent,resume

例:Informing the truth risks destroying the patients’ hope.

c 指consider, contemplate

例:I don't contemplate (预料) him opposing my plan.

a指admit, avoid, appreciate, anticipate

例:We anticipate deriving much instruction from the lecture.

f指face, fancy, finish

e指excuse, enjoy, escape

例:He escaped being punished.

d指delay, defer, deny, dispute(不同意), detest(痛恨)

i指imagine, involve

s指suggest

k指keep

口诀2:有些动词必须以不定式作宾语,它们是:三w 、h c ,五a领着四d 、p, 一r m二l、b, 接不定式o, u, e。

它包括了三个以w开头的单词,三个以h开头的单词,三个以c开头的单词,五个以a开头的单词,分别以d 、p开头的单词各四个,分别以l、b开头的单词各两个,分别以r, m, o, u, e开头的单词各一个。

注:3 w、 hc是want, wish, wait和 hope , help, hesitate以及care, choose, consent

例:He hesitated to buy the coat.

二l、b是learn, long:和beg, bear.

例:I can’t bear him to deceive me.

I long to go abroad.

五a是: agree, ask., afford, arrange, attempt

四d是dare , demand, determine, decide,

四p是 plan, pretend, promise, prepare

以r, m, o, u, e开头的五个单词分别是refuse ,manage ,offer, undertake, expect

口诀3:有16个动词既可以动名词宾语,也可用不定式作宾语,意思基本不变。因为接动名词、不定式均可,情况又变得简单起来,只需记住一句话就行,即:双方一旦开始(begin, start, ),无论喜欢(like, prefer )与否(hate, dislike),都得继续(continue)下去。都不能打算(intend,attempt, propose)忽视(neglect)开始(commence)的爱(love)。习惯(be accustom to)也好,害怕(afraid to do \ of doing)也好,难以容忍( can’t bear)也好。(参见Michael Swan:《英语用法指南》第339条)

例:He is accustom to work \to working hard.

口诀4:有9个动词既可以动名词作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语,意思却不同:remember、forget, try、mean、stop、regret,want、 need、require 。

注:remember to do sth.指记住(别忘记)要做某事,remember doing sth.记得(回忆起)曾做过某事;forget to do sth指忘了要做某事,forget doing sth.忘了要做某事;try to do sth指试图做某事,try doing sth.试试看(试过);mean to do sth指打算,有意图,mean doing sth.意味着,就是;stop to do sth停下来做某事,此为目的状语,stop doing sth.停止做某事。Regret to do sth对现在要发生的事表示“遗憾”,regret doing sth.对发生过的事表示“后悔”。want to do sth指希望,想要;want doing sth.需要,该;need\ require to do sth都是需要require\need doing sth.该都是动名词主动式表示被动。因这9个单词既可接不定式,又可接动名词,我们比之为“九条两头蛇。”

二、时态一致原则

英语时态一致也叫时态呼应。指在复合句中某些从句(主要是宾语从句等名词从句)谓语动词的时态往往受主句谓语动词的时态的影响,因此,须保持主从两部分从句中的时态一致。这对许多中国学生来说,又是一道“八卦阵”。主句谓语动词是现在时或将来时,从句谓语动词可用任何所需要的时态。主句谓语动词是过去时,从句谓语动词一般用过去时。情况可分5种:

口诀5:一般/进行时间同,后主将来先完成。真理不受时间限,具体时间过去从。

注:“一般/进行时间同”,指从句用了一般过去时或过去进行时,表示从句与主句的谓语动词的动作同时发生。如:I explained to them my friend knew no French. He wondered what the boys were doing there.

"后主将来”指从句谓语动词的动作“后于”主句谓语动词的动作,从句须用过去将来时;“先完成”指从句谓语动词的动作“先于”主句谓语动词的动作,从句须用过去完成时。如:The Swede was warned that Napoleon would probably ask him 3 questions. I asked him where he had been.

“真理不受时间限”指如从句表述的是客观真理,即便是主句用的是过去时,从句仍用一般现在时。例:Copernicus discovered that Earth revolves around the sun.

“具体时间过去从”指从句中有具体的时间状语,从句要用一般过去时,即便是从句谓语动词的动作发生在主句谓语动词的动作之前也如此。如: She said she was born in 1980.

在引导定语从句的关系代词中,who指人,which指物,that既可指人也可指物。指人时who比that用的多一些,指物时which比that用的多一些。什么时候一定用that呢?这是学习者必须要解决的问题。

口诀6:锁定 that

The only, the very,The same, no 、any, 两项并列人与物,不定、序数、最高级。

注:前两句指先行词前有The only, the very, the same, no , any修饰时,引导定语从句的关系代词一定用that。例:That’s the only thing that we can do at the moment.

“两项并列人与物”,指先行词为两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的词时,引导定语从句的关系代词一定用that。例:They talked about the countries and people that they had visited

“不定、序数、最高级”指先行词是不定代词时,或先行词前有序数词或最高级修饰时,引导定语从句的关系代词一定用that。

例:Is there anything ( that ) I can do for you?

The best materials that you should recite are your texts.

口诀7:锁定Whether

主语从句用Whether,宾语从句or not,不定式前介词后,取代if别条件。

例:Whether there’ll be seats left it is doubtful.

It depends on whether he is ready.

口诀8:祝愿句、感叹句,only 、so 、 as;开始为副词,否定句首时。

注:倒装句是将谓语的一部分或全部置于主语之前。在only 、so 、 as 中,only指only所修饰的副词、介词短语、状语从句放在句首时,形成倒装。如:Only then did I know the importance of learning English .

so指在以so开头的句子中,表示一种情况也适应于另一人或物。如:You can keep the secret, so can I.

(如后面的句子单纯重复前一句子,则不倒装。如:It’s cold today, so it is.)

as指当 as作“虽然”解的让步状语从句中,造成倒装。如:Child as she is, she knows a lot about the world.

“开始为副词”指以here, there, then, now或out, up, down, away等开头的句子,这种倒装多见于描述性的文体。如:There comes a bus. Out rushed a train from the cave.

“否定句首时”指否定副词或否定连词置于句首时。如:Not until you told me did I know the fact. Not only can he speak English but also his daughter.

口诀9:省略句

人名、店名、标题名,状语从句主语同。不定符号to之后,口语比较从句中。

After dining at the Jones’ (house), I met him at my tailor’s (shop).

Vingo tightened his face, as if fortifying himself against still another disappointment.

口诀10:定冠词

序数、方位、最高级,乐器、党派和阶级。地理名词去湖泊,独一无二Space。普通名词专有化,一类人、物看回指。

“序数、方位、最高级,乐器、党派和阶级”,如:The Third Wave, join the Party, play the electronic organ( 中国乐器常常无冠词,如play dizi)。

“地理名词去湖泊,独一无二Space”指地理名词要有定冠词,如:the Alps, the Sahara, the Nile,但湖泊例外,如:Lake Baikal。

“独一无二Space”指独一无二的事物要加定冠词,但Space(“太空”),society(“社会”),man(“人类”)前无冠词。

“普通名词专有化”后要加定冠词,如:the United Nations, the Ministry of Education.

“一类人、物看回指”指定冠词和单数可数名词连用可指“一类人或物”,如:The lion is the king of beasts.

“看回指”是说回指前面已提到的事物时要加定冠词。

口诀11:零冠词

一日三餐有职位,物主、指代、every。季节、月份与星期,棋类、球类、节假日。

“一日三餐有职位”指一日三餐前、表示职位的名词前用零冠词,即无冠词,如:Her husband had been made Mayor.

“物主、指代、every”指名词前有物主代词、指代代词、名词所有格及every等修饰时。

“季节、月份与星期,棋类、球类、节假日”指在季节、月份、星期、棋类、球类、节假日前可不用冠词,然中国的传统节日前往往有定冠词。如:play volleyball, Saint Valentine’s Day, the Spring Festival

口诀12:不定代词之一

either、neither谓语单,none指人时同 no one; one复数是ones, another可置few前。

“either、neither谓语单”指either或neither作主语时谓语动词为单数,如:Either\ Neither sentence is correct English.

不定代词之二

Every、no只定语, each每个重个体,lots只有肯定句,other复数 others.

“Every、no只定语”指Every、no只能作定语,实际上应视为形容词。

不定代词之三

it代替同一物,that代替不可数;none作主语none of, 谓语可单也可复。All、both部分否。

“that代替不可数”,如:The population of China is large than that of USA.

“none作主语none of,谓语可单也可复”,如:None of us agree \ agrees with what he said.

“All、both部分否”,指All、both和not连用时是部分否定,而非全部否定。如:All that glitters is not gold.( 发光的未必都是金子。)

口诀13:连系动词

也叫系动词,共分三种,即“特征、状态,保态、变态”。

“特征、状态”指第一类单纯表示一种特征、状态,如:be, seem, appear, feel, look, sound, taste, smell,

“保态”指保持原有状态,如:remain, keep , continue

“变态”指改变原有状态,如:become, get, grow, come, go, turn, fall, prove

口诀14:情态动词之一

否定may时 mustn’t,否定must(为)needn’t。祝愿句中只用 may,把握不大用might。如:May you succeed.

情态动词之二

ought 、should两相通,语气ought to较重。该做没做用完成。

“该做没做用完成”是说ought to、should的完成时表示本该做的事,实际没做,有责备意。如:You should have been here 10 minutes earlier.

情态动词之三

情态need常否、疑,接完成时“本不必”;肯定should 、 must,动名、不定为实意。

此段表述的是need的用法,情态动词need多用于否定句、疑问句,接完成时是“本不必做实际做了”,肯定句中用should 、 must 、have to来代替,后接动名词、不定式时已为实意动词,而非情态动词。如:The motorcycle needs to be repaired. Your hair needs washing badly.

情态动词之四

条件、疑问与否定,dare to do表实动。

此段表述的是dare的用法,情态动词dare多用于条件句、否定句、疑问句,dare to do表示实意动词。如:Who dare touch my teeth? He dared to do so.

歌诀十五:介词except 与 except for

前后同,介、不、从。

尽管介词except 与 except for殊难区分,然一旦记住上面的六字口诀,问题便迎刃而解。具体是说,在表示“除外”时,besides是“加上”,except 和except for都是“减去”。在表示“减去”时,except 表示的是“减去”的内容属于同一类,否则用except for。

例:None of them can speak English except my teacher.(my teacher和 them是同类)

Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.

(Composition和spelling mistakes不是同类)

except 还可接介词短语、不定式和从句,except for则不能接这些结构。

例:The farmer rarely went to the city except to hospital.

He can do everything except give birth.

They had no idea where the hotel was, except that it was near a post office.

口诀16:不同种类副词的词序

可记一句话:程、状、地,地、状、频,时间状语是殿军。

“程、状、地”指先后顺序,如:Children played fairly (程度) well (状态) there (地点)yesterday.

“地、状、频”,如:I have been to Germany (地点) delightfully (状态) twice (频度) in 2002. “时间状语是殿军”指时间状语总是放在最后面。

最后编辑于:2012-05-11 14:52
分类: SAT/GRE/GMAT
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