中学英语常用的九个介词(转自英语网)

loriotte (冷门君) 路人甲
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发表于:2012-04-03 16:54 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

一、at

1. 动词+ at。

at表示“指向某一目标,到达某地”:arrive at抵达, call at访问某地, catch at(it)当场抓住, come at攻击, fire at向……开火, glance at 瞟一眼, glare at 怒目而视, grieve at 忧伤,knock at 敲, laugh at 嘲笑, look at 看一眼, pull at 拉扯, rejoice at 对……高兴,smile at 向某人微笑, shoot at 朝……射击, stare at 怒目而视, thrust at 刺向, tear at 撕, tremble at 颤抖,wonder at 吃惊,work at 工作。

例如:

Don’t let me catch you again at it. 不要再让我当场逮住你。

We must “shoot the arrow at the target”. 我们必须有的放矢。

They trembled at the sight of the peasant’s spears. 看到农民的梭标,他们阵阵发抖。

2. be +形容词/过去分词+ at。

其中at表示“情绪、情感的原因,或对某物具有某种感情”:be angry at恼怒于, be alarmed at对……保持警觉,be astonished at对……吃惊, be bad at不擅长, be clever at对某事很灵巧,be delighted at高兴,be disgusted at厌恶, be disappointed at对…失望,be good at擅长, be impatient at对…不够耐心, be mad at狂热于,be pleased at对…感到高兴, be present at出席, be satisfied at满意,be surprised at吃惊, be shocked at对…非常震惊,be terrified at受到…的恐吓,be quick at对…很机敏。

例如:

They were overjoyed at his return to work. 他们对他重返工作感到欣喜。

They are alarmed at the growth of the liberation movement in the colonies. 他们对殖民地日益壮大的解放运动警觉起来。

3. at+名词构成的词组。

at a distance在一定距离,at a loss不知所措,at a time一次,at all一点也不,at any cost不惜一切代价,at best最好也只是,at first起初,at hand手头,at heart在内心里,at home在家;无拘束,at last最后,at least至少,at most最多,at once马上,at present目前,at sea不知所措,at times有时,at will任意地,at work起作用,at worst最坏。

4. 其它含有at的短语。

work hard at勤奋工作,drop in at顺路拜访。

二、to

1.动词+to

a) 动词+ to。

介词to意为“达到,指向”等:adjust to适应, attend to处理;照料, agree to赞同, amount to加起来达…,belong to属于, come to达到, drink to为…干杯,get to到达, happen to发生在某人身上, hold to紧握, lead to通向, listen to听, occur to想起, object to反对, point to指向, respond to回答, refer to参考;指的是…;涉及, reply to回答, see to负责,stick to坚持, turn to求助, write to给某人写信。

例如:

She must learn to adjust herself to English life. 她必须学会适应英国的生活。

Business has to be attended to. 有事要办。

An idea occurred to me. 我想出一个办法。

b) 动词(+sth.)+to+sb.。

下列动词不能直接带间接宾语sb.,要接间接宾语时须在动词后加介词to:announce to通知某人, describe to向某人描述, explain to向某人解释, express to对某人表达, mention to提及, nod to向某人点头, report to报告, say to告知, shout to对某人大叫, suggest to对某人提建议,speak to与某人交谈, talk to跟某人谈话, whisper to和某人低声耳语。

例如:

She suggested to me one or two suitable people for the committee.她跟我向委员会推举了一两个合适的人选。

c) 动词+sth./sb.+ to +sth./sb.。

此时介词to可译成“到,于,给”等意思:add to增加, compare to比作, carry to运送至, devote to致力于,introduce to介绍给, invite to邀请参加, join to连接到, leave to委托给,reduce to下降至, sentence to判处, take to带到。例如:

Please add a piece of candy to coffee. 请给咖啡加块糖。

Poets like to compare life to stage. 诗人喜欢把人生比作舞台。

2. be +形容词/过去分词+ to。

to的意思是“对…”:be alive to觉察;晓得,be attentive to注意;留心, be awake to知晓, be blind to缺乏眼光,be close to紧挨着, be common to对某人来说很普通, be contrary to违反;反对, be devoted to致力, be deaf to不愿意听, be equal to有…的力量,be exposed to暴露;遭受, be fair to对…公平, be familiar to对某人来说熟悉,be grateful to对某人心存感激, be good to对…有好处, be harmful to对…有危害,be important to对…重要, be kind to友好对待, be known to周知于,be married to嫁给, be moved to转移到, be near to靠近,be necessary to对…有必要, be opposite to在对面, be opposed to反对,be pleasant to合某人之意, be proper to专属, be polite to礼貌待人,be rude to粗暴对待, be relative to与…有关, be strange to不习惯,be similar to类似, be suitable to适合, be true to忠实,be thankful to感激, be useful to对…有用, be used to习惯。

例如:

Are you alive to what is going on? 你注意到发生什么事了吗?

The old man was not equal to the situation. 那老人不能应付这种情况。

His house is opposite to mine. 他的房子在我的房子对面。

3. to+名词构成的词组。

to a degree在某种程度上, to date到现在为止,to one’s feet跳起来,to one’s mind照…看来, to one’s surprise使…吃惊,to one’s taste符合胃口, to oneself独自享用, to order定做,to the letter不折不扣地, to the point中肯地。

三、about

1. 动词+about+sth.。

about在此表示“论及,谈起,涉及,着手”等意思:arrange about安排,argue about辩论, ask about询问,bring about带来,chat about闲聊,care about在意,complain about报怨,go about着手,hear about听说, inquire about打听,know about了解, quarrel about争论,read about读到, see about负责处理,set about开始, speak about谈起, talk about谈论, think about考虑, trouble about担心,tell about讲述,worry about着急。

现举例说明其中一些短语的用法:

She inquired about my brother. 她向我打听有关我兄弟的情况。

I must set about my packing. 我必须开始收拾行装。

What are you chatting about? 你们在聊什么呢?

2. be +形容词+about+sth.。

about在此意思是“为…,对…”,接表原因的词:be anxious about为…着急, be bad about对…感到不舒服,be busy about忙于…,be careful about小心…, be certain about对…有把握, be concerned about关心…,be crazy about为…发狂,be excited about为…感到激动, be happy about为…而高兴,be mad about为…发疯,be nervous about对…感到紧张, be particular about挑剔…,be pleased about为…兴奋,be strict about对…严格,be thoughtful about对…考虑周到的,be uneasy about为…感受到不安。

例句:

What have you been busy about today? 今天在忙些什么?

You are certainly very thoughtful about others. 你为别人想得太周到了。

I’m strict about such things. 对这些事我是很严格的。

注:come about发生,get about(疾病、谣言)流行,turn about转身,

leave about到处乱放,lie about随便堆放,put about打扰;传播,

put oneself about使…发愁。这些词组中about作副词,此时about不能接宾语。

四、for

1. 动词+for

a) 动词+for。

for表原因、目的:account for解释;说明, answer for对…负责,apply for申请;请求, apologize for为…而道歉, beg for请求, call for要求,care for在意, enter for报名参加, fight for为…而战, hope for希望,inquire for查询;求见, leave for离开某地到另一地, look for寻找, long for盼望,mistake for误认为, plan for计划做某事, prepare for为…作准备,provide for为…提供, reach for伸手去拿, run for竞选, stand for象征,search for搜寻, send for派人去请, speak for陈述意见、愿望, take for当作, wish for希望, wait for等待。

例如:

His illness accounts for his absence. 他因病缺席。

The baby reached for the apple but couldn’t reach it.那婴儿伸手去苹果,但够不着。

He who would search for pearls must dive below.要想找到珍珠,必须潜到海底。

b) 动词+sb.+ for +sth.。

for表示原因或目的:ask for要求得到,blame for因…责备, excuse for宽恕, forgive for谅解, pardon for原谅,pay for花钱买, praise for称赞, punish for对…进行惩罚,push for催逼,reward for酬谢, thank for对…表示谢意。

例如:

Please excuse me for my being late. 请原谅我的迟到。

Forgive me for my keeping you waiting. 请见谅,让你久等了。

2. be +形容词+for。

for表作用、目的、对人或物有某种情绪等:be anxious for急于做, be eager for渴望, be bad for有害于,be convenient for便于, be good for利于, be famous for以…出名,be fit for适合于, be grateful for对…心存感激, be impatient for对…不耐烦,be late for迟到, be necessary for有必要, be ready for作好准备,be sorry for为…而后悔, be responsible for对…负责,be suitable for适合于, be unfit for不适合, be useful for对…有作用。

例如:

He is eager for success. 他渴望成功。

The government is responsible for the nation’s welfare. 政府负责民众的福利。

3. for+名词构成的词组。

for all尽管,for a song非常便宜地,for certain确切地,for company陪着,for ever永远,for example例如,for fear以免,for fair肯定地,for free免费,for fun为了好玩,for good永远,for instance比方,for luck祝福,for life终身,for long长久,for nothing白白地,for once有生第一次,for oneself替自己,for pleasure为了消遣,for reason因为…理由,for sale供出售,for shame真不害臊,for short简称,for sport好玩,for sure确切地。

4. 动词+副词/名词+for构成的短语。

be in for将遇到,make up for弥补,go in for从事,look out for提防,take sth. for granted把…当作理所当然,have an ear for音感好, have a gift for有某方面的天赋

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