主谓一致

发表于:2012-07-26 17:22 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

主谓一致

一、考点聚焦
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、语法形式上的一致
主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。
I am a boy   He is a boy   They are boys   I work hard   He works hard  they work hard

2、意义上一致
1)主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。

peoplepolicecattle等。The crowd were runing for their lives.
2)主语形式为复数,而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。The news is very exciting.
形复意单的单词有newworks(工厂)、means和以ics结尾的学科名称physicspoli-ticseconomics
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、就近原则。即谓语动词的单复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如果连词oreither orneither nornot only but also等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,谓语动词与靠近它的主语一致。
二、应注意的若干问题
1)名词作主语。
①某些集体名词如familyteamaudienceclass clubcommitteecompanycrewcrowdenemygovernmentgrouppartypublic等作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语用单数,作为个体用复数。
My family is going out for a trip.
其所长  The whole family are watching TV.
Population
和“a group(crowd)of + 复数名词”也适用于这种情况

②某些集体名词如peoplepolicecattleoxen只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。
③单、复数同形的名词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义决定单、复数。
A sheep is over there.     Some sheep are over there.
④名词所有格之后的名词被省略,这种情况一般只指商店、工场、住宅等;作主语时,动词一般用单数。My uncles is not for from here. 常见的省略名词有the bakers the barbarsthe Zhangs等。

⑤当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间、书名等复数名词时,往往可以根据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语用单数。 Thirty years has passed.  

⑥不定代词eacheveryno所修饰的名词即使以and或逗号连接成多主语时,谓语动词仍用单数形式。如: Each boy and each girl in my class has a dictionary.
⑦如果主语有more than one many a 构成,尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词用单数形式。 More than one student has seen the play. Many a boy has bought that kind of toy.
但是,“more + 复数名词 + than one”结构之后,谓语用复数。
⑧一些由两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。

glassesclothestrousersshoescompasseschopsticksscissors等。

但如果主语用a kind ofa pair ofa series of等加名词构成时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。
A pair of shoes was on the desk.
this kind of book = a book of this kind(这种书),其谓语动词用单数;短语this kind of men = men of this kind = these kind of men(口语)(这一类人),但this kind of men的谓语用单数,men of this kindthese kind of men的谓语用复数,all kinds of后跟复数名词,谓语用复数形式。

如: This kind of men is dangerous. Men of this kind/sort are dangerous.
⑩复数形式的单、复数同形名词作主语时,按意义一致的原则,用作单数意义时,谓语用单数,反之,谓语用复数。这类名词有meansworksspecies(种类)ChineseJapanese等。当它们的前面有 asuch athisthat修饰时,谓语用单数;有allsuchthesethose修饰时,谓语用复数。
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如果名词词组中心词是allmosthalfrest等词语,所指是复数意义,谓语动词用复数形式,反之用单数。 All of my students work hard.     All of the oil is gone.
12在主谓倒装的句子中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如:

Between the two windows hangs an oil painting.

2)由连接词连接的名词作主语。
①用andboth and 连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。但如果并列主语指的是同一个人,同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数形式,这时and后面的名词没有冠词。
Truth and honesty is the best policy.    To love and to be loved is the great happiness.
Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit. A knife and fork is on the table.
★②当主语后面跟有as well asas much asno less thanalong withwithlikerather thantogether withbutexceptbesidesincludingin addition to等引导的词组时,采取“就远原则”。
③以oreither orneither nornot only but also等连接的词作主语时,采取“就近原则”。
3)代词作主语。
①名词型物主代词连接的动词,既可以用单数,也可以用复数,这取决于它所代替的是单数还是复数。Ours (Our Party) is a great Party.    Your shoes are white, mine (= my shoes) are black.
suchthe same起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。
Such is our plan. Such are his last words.
③关系代词whothatwhich等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。
④疑问词whowhatwhich作主语时,谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单、复数。
Who lives next door? It is Xiao Liu.    Who lives next door? It is Wang and Li.
⑤不定代词anyeitherneithernoneallsomemore等作主语时,要注意下列情况:
A)单独作主语时,视其在文中的意义,动词可用单数或复数形式。

Now all has been changed. All are present.

B)其后接of时,若of的宾语为不可数名词,动词用单数形式;若of的宾语为复数名词或代词时,动词可以是单数,也可以是复数;在正式文体中,单数形式的动词更常用。

Do (es) any of you know about the accident? None of us has (have) seen the film.
4)分数、量词作主语。
①“分数或百分数 + 名词”构成的短语以及由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a large quantity of, a heap of, heaps of, half of + 名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中of后面的名词的数保持一致,这是因为短语中后面的名词是中心词,而短语中前面的量词是修饰语。如:
Lots of damage was caused by flood.       A number of students have gone to the countryside.
A large quantity of people is needed here.    Quantities of food (nuts) were still on the table.
a great deal ofa large amount of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数;large amounts of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数。
③表示数量的one and a half后,名词要用复数形式,但是其短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 One and a half apples is left on the table.
half of(a)part of修饰可数名词单数及不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数,修饰可数名词复数时,谓语动词用复数。
(5)
名词化的形容词作主语。
如果主语由“the + 形容词(或分词)”结构担任时,谓语通常用复数。这类词有the richthe poorthe bravethe injuredthe livingthe wounded等。如表抽象的也可以用单数,如the unknownthe beautiful等。
6)从句作主语。
①由what引导的主语从句,谓语动词通常用单数,但所指的具体内容是复数意义时,谓语动词一般用复数形式。 What we need is more money.   What we need are more people/teachers.
★②在“one of + 复数名词 + who/that/which”引导的从句结构中,关系代词who/that/which的先行词是靠近它的复数名词而不是one,因此从句中的谓语动词也应该是复数形式。如one前有the only则用单数形式。 This is one of the most interesting stories that have been told by my father.
She was the only one of the girls who was late for class today.
★(7)不定式、名动词(短语)作主语用单数形式;There be句型中be的单复数取决于be后的第一个词的数。 There is a book, two pens on the desk.   There are two pens, a book on the desk.

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