Mar. 19th， 2013
每日音乐推荐：Chris Medina - What Are Words
1，adverb clauses 状语从句(2)
Using Adverb Clauses to Show Time Relationships:
-after & before
A present tense, NOT a future tense, is used in an adverb clause of time, as in (1) and (4).
Ex, 1, After she graduates, she will get a job.
2, After she(had) graduated, she got a job.
4, I will leave before he comes.
5, I (had) left before he came.
*After and before are commonly used in the following expressions:
shortly after, a short time after, a little while after, not long after, soon after
shortly before, a short time before, a little while before, not long before
when = at that time
Notice the different time relationships expressed by the tenses.
1, When I arrived, he was talking on the phone.
2, When I got there, he had already left.
3, When it began to rain, I stood under a tree.
4, When I was in Chicago, I visited the museums.
5, When I see him tomorrow, I will ask him.
-while & as
while,as = during that time
1,While I was walking home, it began to rain.
2,As I was walking hone, it began to rain.
-by the time
by the time = one event is completed before another event.
Notice the use of the past perfect and future perfect in the main clause.
1,By the time he arrived, We had already left.
2,By the time he comes, We will have already left.
since = from that time to the present
note: The present perfect is used in the main clause.
1,I haven`t seen him since he left this morning.
2,I`ve known her ever since i was a child. (ever adds emphasis)
-until & till
until,till = to that time and then no longer(Till is used more in speaking than in writing; it is generally not sued in formal English.)
1,We stayed there until we finished our work.
2,We stayed there till we finished our work.
-as soon as & once
as soon as,as = when one event happens, another event happens soon afterward
1, As soon as it stops raining, we will leave.
2,Once it stops raining, we will leave.
-as long as & so long as
as long as, so long as = during all that time, from beginning to end
1,I will never speak to him again as long as I live.
2,I will never speak to him again so long as I live.
-whenever & every time
whenever = every time
1,Whenever I see her, I say hello.
2,Every time I see her, I say hello.
-the first time,the ```time
1,The first time I went to New York, I went to an opera.
2,I saw two plays the last time I Went to New York.
3,The next time I go to New York, I`m going to see a ballet.
A The body
1,face 2,mouth 3,chin 4,neck 5,shoulder 6,arm 7,upper arm 8,elbow 9,forearm 10,armpit
11,back 12,chest 13,waist 14,abdomen 15,buttocks 16,hip 17,leg 18,thigh 19,knee 20,calf
B The Hand
21,wrist 22,knuckle 23,fingernail 24,thumb 25,(index)finger 26,middle finger 27,ring finger
28,little finger 29, palm
C The Head
30,hair 31,part 32,forehead 33, sideburn 34,ear 35,cheek 36,nose 37,nostril 38,jaw 39,beard
40,mustache 41,tongue 42,tooth 43,lip