武汉雅思托福培训之雅思阅读中如何借鉴写作思路

发表于:2014-05-25 09:39 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

许多学生认为,动辄900-1000字的阅读文章对于只有150和250字的雅思作文借鉴意义不大,事实上,两者在主题、构思、句式、用词等方面有着很大的相似性。

1. 主题性

阅读文章和雅思写作题目涵盖的范围比较广,具有极强的主题性,其重合话题有:环境、社会、教育三大方面。阅读文章的内容能帮助考生更好地理解题目的文化背景,积累观点素材,在备考过程中,考生可以将这两项结合起来。

剑四test 2的reading passage 1“Lost for Words”极好的回答了雅思一道较难的文化类考题:what are the reasons for the loss of many cultures and languages? How to solve this problem?”

许多学生因为缺少对这一背景的了解而无从下手,我们完全可以看看这篇阅读文章提供了哪些素材:

1 “What makes a language endangered is not just the number of speakers, but how old they are. If it is spoken by children, it is relatively safe。”

2 “…people reject the language of their parents… It begins with a crisis of confidence, when a small community finds itself alongside a larger, wealthier society…”

3 “Quite often, governments try to kill off a minority language by banning its use in public or discouraging its use in schools, all to promote national unity。”

4 “… They cannot refuse to speak English if most commercial activity is in English…”

这些都是十分准确而又全面的回答,说明了许多语言丧失的原因,甚至连语言丧失对于文化的连带影响也有所涉及:“Language is also intimately bound with culture, so it may be difficult to preserve one without the other。”

这篇文章在后文也对如何解决这一问题做出了回答:“ …a growing interest in cultural identity may prevent the direst prediction from coming true….’apprentice’ programs have provided life support t several indigenous languages。”

值得注意的是,这篇阅读文章的结构是遵循“背景—原因—解决方式”的架构来安排的,对于写作结构也有很好的架构作用。

 

2.流程图的描述

2010年雅思写作Task I图画题频现,许多学生不太熟悉流程图,对于如何描述其过程极为担心。其实分析发现,这样的句式在说明型的阅读文章中屡见不鲜,这类阅读文章常常涉及某个事物的发展过程或者制作方式,其遣词造句都是可以进行学习和利用。

剑五Test 2 Reading passage 1是一篇关于对现代塑料的说明文章,其中有一段就是对塑料制作过程的描述,很多句式都可以“拿来我用”。

首先是对这一流程的总体概括“The original patent outlined a three-stage process, in which phenol and formaldehyde were initially combined under vacuum inside a large egg-shaped kettle。” 我们可以根据这个句式来描写2009年9月一道关于玻璃瓶子回收过程的题目,

如:“A three-stage process is outlined, in which the used bottles are collected and re-produced in the plant. “

接着,制作过程中的细节按照先后顺序铺开,并结合被动语态与准确的动词选择:“The resin was allowed to cool in shallow trays until it hardened, and then broken up and ground into powder. Other substances were then introduced, including…. . In the last stage, the heated Bakelite was poured into a hollow mould of the required shape …”,其中的”cool, break, grind, pour”等动词都是在工作流程中的高频词汇。“then, in the last stage”也可以作为极好的连接过渡词。

剑五Test 4 Reading passage 2关于强化玻璃的说明文中也有类似的描述句式:“… used to make glass, and nickel can also be introduced by fragments of nickel alloys falling into the molten glass. As the glass is heated, these atoms react to form …”

其中的“be used to, introduce, melt, heat”也都可以用在描述中。

3.图表的描述

由于阅读文章中也不乏对于数据的说明,我们也很容易找到可以在雅思图表作文中使用的句式。

剑四 Test 2 Reading passage 2中的一段“According to…, 18% of patients…; 12% suffer from…, which is only 1% more than those…. . Those suffering from… represents 7% of their patients, and candida sufferers represent an equal percentage. … represent 6% and 5% respectively, and a further 4% see… “

 

这是一段很好的排序段范例,在描写数据的同时也比较了大小,句式变化多样,考生也不妨学习一下。

4.辩论文章观点的表述

尽管没有与雅思写作辩论文章完全对应的形式,阅读文章中也有很多可以效仿的观点表述句式,与学生动辄“some people think…”的单调表述相比,其表达生动多样。在此进行了一些总结:

如“… reject this, pointing out that… ”, “When it comes to…,…”, “… believe the main reason for… is…”, “there is a widespread belief that…”, “It was once assumed that…. . However,…”, “There is an abundance of evidence to support the belief that…” , “the answer to… depends on…”,等。

总之,作为较为正式的英文表达,雅思阅读是极好的写作模仿对象。考生可以从阅读文章里汲取许多好的句式,以克服在日常写作中“中式英语”的问题。

5. 用词

雅思写作对词汇的要求主要是准确性和多样性,许多学生对这一标准没有明确的认识和把握,而在阅读文章中可以很清楚地了解到什么样的词汇更适合书面表达。

1) 开头:

剑四Test1Reading passage1: “Adults and children are frequently confronted with statements about the alarming rate of loss of tropical rainforests.”

这是一个很好的联系实际的开头模式,“be confronted with”这一词组可以应用于很多主题,当下的热点问题如犯罪、环境、教育、工作甚至科技所带来的变化等,如:

“Modern people are confronted with drastic changes brought about by high technology …”

再如剑六G类Section A Reading passage 3的开头:“Per capita water usage has been on an upward trend for many years.” 可以用来代替在学生中过于“流行”的一种开头模式“more and more…”,如:

“The number of people who choose distance-learning has been on an upward trend…”

由于阅读文章和写作文章有许多相似的背景和主题,在思路枯竭时,不妨学习一下阅读文章尽快切入主题。

 

2) 主体部分

阅读文章在提及同一意思时,常会用同义词来表达,这点很值得考生学习,如提及环境脆弱时,会用到“fragile, vulnerable”等不同的词语进行说明,以下是对于一些阅读中常见同义词的总结,这些都可以在写作中有所运用:

incorporate… into… / integrate… with…/ combine … with… 将……与……结合

consistent with/ comply with/ in accordance with/ correspond with/ conform to/compatible with 与……一致,相符

comprise/ include/ involve/ consist of 包括

trigger/ ignite/ give birth to/breed 产生

cope with/ tackle/ combat/ address 解决

object to/ disapprove/ oppose 反对

independent of/ regardless of/ free from 不管,不受……干扰

ascribe … to…/ attribute… to…/blame…on/for 把……归咎于……

当然这只是众多同义替换词中很少的一部分,考生可以在阅读文章及做题时留心这些单词,并予以模仿,更好地满足写作的需要。

3) 结尾部分

文章进行到这里,许多学生自觉捉襟见肘,江郎才尽,难以下笔,阅读文章再次给了我们一些新的思路和启示。

如09.7.23的一道写作题目“Many people are optimistic about the 21st century and see it as an opportunity to make positive changes to the world. To what extent do you agree or disagree with their optimism? What changes would you like to see in the new century?”

巧合的是,剑五Test 1 Reading Passage 3 的结尾与这道题目契合度很高,“It is crucial that we look at the facts if we want to make the best possible solutions for the future. It may be costly to be overly optimistic – but more costly still to be too pessimistic.”

曾有学生回忆自己写作高分心得时提到有些观点和句式都是来自于雅思阅读文章,而且在模仿过程中,自己的文章也越来越地道;另外写作的构思和对句法的把握,也有利于对阅读文章的理解。

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