“烤鸭”必读:托福独立写作拿分点

罗德教育国际 (罗德国际教育) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-05-27 17:40 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
托福写作可以说是所有人“会呼吸的痛”,托福考生最犯怵的单项,往往就是写作,它真的是一个很令人头疼的单项,为什么会这样?主要是因为这种国际型的语言考试,和传统的英语教学的写作要求是非常不一样的。


  托福写作总共50分钟时间,要求学生完成两篇文章,一篇综合写作,另外一篇独立写作,综合写作是20分钟的时间,而独立写作是30分钟的时间,这个时间是一定需要遵守的。而且托福考试是电脑作答,第一篇作文综合写作考察大家的综合能力。先要求大家阅读一段文字,然后再听一段听力,最后根据你所阅读的材料和听到的听力进行写作。而独立写作在形式上和雅思大作文基本上是一致的,即议论文一篇。


  而托福独立写作往往还要求学生使用实例名人名言等“引证”,这更是增加了大家的难度。所以我们会觉得在初中、高中甚至是四六级的考试当中,写作也还是可以的,但是一到托福的考试过程当中,往往很难拿捏到底什么样的写作是好的写作,什么样的文章是好的文章。


  希望今天大家读完文章后可以对于托福独立写作中“引证”这个独特的拿分点有所领悟。


  托福独立写作字数一般情况下350到450字之间,太长或者过短都不太好。这些字数中包括了学生“引证”时使用的事例或者谚语等。托福写作鼓励学生多使用事例,包括名人名言,个人经历,新闻报道,谚语,成语,这些都是可以用在托福独立写作中的“引证”,接下来我们将用一个具体的作文题目及范文帮助大家更好的理解“引证”。


  这里有一个托福独立写作题目:


  Which one do youprefer, to solve problems on your own experience and knowledge, or to askothers for advice?


  范文:


  As knowledge andexperience serve as twin towers in problem-solving, one is often presented withtwo major paths that pave the way for final fulfillment, either to wrack hisbrain, just like what happened to Newton, siting for many years under an appletree and eventually figuring out one of the greatest universal rules thatgovern the whole globe, or to seek for others’ wisdom through their advice,just as in the case of Benjamin Franklin, gathering great minds under one roofand then establishing a most world-renown library. Both ways work. When apractical goal is involved, however, Benjamin Franklin may best be regarded asa role model in this respect and asking people for advice often turn out to bethe prime alternative。


  Experience andknowledge borrowed or learned from others’ advice contribute greatly toeffectiveness and efficiency for a goal-accomplishment. Not all experience andknowledge related to problem-solving can be obtained by personal effort alonedue to limitations of mind and capabilities of each individual. A singlethought in someone’s mind is, more often than not, far less shining comparedwith group’s wisdom. That explains the famous old saying that one sees furtherwhen standing upon the shoulders’ of past great giants; that explains why agreat leader is always with greater minds; that also explains why teamwork in corporationis highly emphasized in the 21st century. Brainstorm and exchange of ideasbetween different thoughts never fail to enhance capabilities of each individualinvolved, a team, a company, an institution, a country, or even the entireglobal village。


  Asking others’advice instead of getting everything done on one’s own promotes democracy andcommunication too. In terms of democracy, it is necessary to give others rightsand chances to speak since the problem may concern them in different ways, andtheir saying in turn reflects our respect toward freedom of speech as well astheir wisdom. In terms of communication, idea exchange sometimes focuses morethan solutions, and hereby better mutual understanding about perspectives,principles, practicalities and personalities of each other。


  Admittedlyturning to others for help and suggestion by no means refers to absolute andirresponsible dependence. Consideration upon different thoughts and ideasbroadens our mind, enlarges our vision, furthers understanding, enhances moreeffective and efficient brainstorm, and stresses mutual respect in groups andcommunities, which undoubtedly gives rise to better, if not the best solutions.As is paraphrased from John F Kennedy, brainstormed, there is little we cannotdo while divided, there is little we can do。


  那么在以上内容中,“引证”有哪些呢?


  开头段中:


  “…….one is oftenpresented with two major paths that pave the way for final fulfillment, eitherto wrack his brain, just like what happened to Newton, siting for many yearsunder an apple tree and eventually figuring out one of the greatest universalrules that govern the whole globe……”


  “…… just as in thecase of Benjamin Franklin, gathering great minds under one roof and thenestablishing a most world-renown library。”


  以上两个点分别使用了牛顿和富兰克林两位伟人的故事来印证作者的观点。作者想要表示两种途径均可以达到解决问题的作用,而这两个案例似的作者的观点不那么的空洞和单薄,这是外国人喜欢的论证方式:以事实说话。在开头段结尾处,作者最后还是选择了富兰克林代表的去找别人询问意见。


  中间的段落中:


  “That explains thefamous old saying that one sees further when standing upon the shoulders’ ofpast great giants;”


  “Brainstorm andexchange of ideas between different thoughts never fail to enhance capabilitiesof each individual involved, a team, a company, an institution, a country, oreven the entire global village。”


  以上两个点也是“引证”。这次不是名人案例,作者在这里选择使用谚语及实例来进行“引证”。第一句谚语实际上就是大家所熟悉的“站在巨人[微博]的肩膀上,所以看得远”,也我们的一句老话“站得高看得远”颇有异曲同工之妙。


  第二个“引证”则是用“头脑风暴”这个实例来进一步论证自己的观点。这样的形式变化不仅可以让考生的选择更加多样,更让考官不会觉得“引证”选择过于单一而对学生的写作素材量产生怀疑。


  结尾段中:


  “As is paraphrasedfrom John F Kennedy, brainstormed, there is little we cannot do while divided,there is little we can do。”


  作者再次引用肯尼迪总统的言论作为结尾进行加强“引证”。为自己的独立写作划上了一个强有力的结尾。


  通过对这篇文章的分析,我们不难发现。引证可以有很多形式,伟人故事、名人名言、谚语习语、甚至是新闻故事。只要能够与大家的论点相切合,我们都可以“引证”到独立写作当中。


  要想做好这一点。大家必须要更多的在平时的练习中积攒相应的素材,做到考前心中有数,这样我们才能更好的完成托福写作对我们的要求。另外,“引证”不可以过多,但是也不能太少,它的比例很重要,另外引证的位置是很重要的,不能滥竽充数一般的随便搬一段“引证”放在错误的位置或者段落都会造成适得其反的不良效果,只要能做到以上这些,大家的托福独立写作“引证”之路肯定会越走越顺畅的。


  托福写作常见问题问答:


  1. 新托福写作综合写作的字数要求时多少?如果超过字数要求会扣分吗?


  官方明确要求托福综合写作字数是150至225字之间,而且我们建议考生尽量不超过225字,因为很多学生写作水平很好但是字数超过225字后往往没有获得理想的分数。希望大家都能按照官方的要求写作并控制字数。


  2. 我托福写作考试独立写作没有使用案例,全部使用了论证,这样好吗?


  就像我在文章中提到过的,如果完全没有案例或者“引证”的话,肯定是不够好的,因为官方鼓励大家使用一定的“引证”。至少要求2-3个。
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