托福写作中要慎用"he""she"等别称

罗德教育国际 (罗德国际教育) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-06-03 10:31 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
摘要:英语的性别称谓不像汉语里面可以用“他”指代所有人,而没有歧义。英语里面尤其在托福写作的时候,性别称谓怎么写尤其重要。
  尽量不用通性代词he,除了明确地指代一个男性人物时,都要设法避免使用之。可以根据语境需要,选用下列替换方式:
  1) 采用复数形式:
  Sexist: When bathing a baby, never leave him unattended.
  Revised: When bathing babies, never leave them unattended.
  给婴儿洗澡时,一定不能让他们无人照料。
  2) 用we/us/our改写原句:
  Sexist:From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.
  Revised:From each of us according to our abilities, to each of us according to our needs.
  各尽所能,按需分配。
  3) 改用第二人称:
  Sexist: No man knows his true character until he has run out of gas, purchased something on the installment plan and raised an adolescent.
  Revised: You don‘t know what your true character is until you have run out of gas, purchased something on the ! installment plan and raised an adolescent.
  只有当汽车大的油用光了,按分规付款方式购物和抚养大一个孩子时,人的本来品性才会显露出来。
  4)改用被动语态
  Sexist: One who, when he has the choice of two evils, chooses both.
  Revised: One who, when given the choice of two evils, chooses both.
  一个在两种恶行之中要作出选择就两者都选的人。
  5)完全省略代词:
  Sexist: What a person thinks of after he becomes a departee?
  Revised: What a person thinks of after becoming a departee?
  一个人离去后,会作何感想呢?
  6)用冠词替代:
  Sexist: Can a critic give his opinion of an omelet without being asked to make one?
  Revised: Can a critic give an opinion of...?
  评论家议论煎蛋时难道到非要他去自己煎鸡蛋吗?
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