口语第 1 题
1. Some schools require students to take part in community service activities after school.
Which of the following do you think is the best activity for students? 1. planting flowers in
the community 2.doing clean-?‐ups in the garden 3. recycling waste
2. Among the following professions, which do you think is the most important to a city?
Police officer, building designer or transport worker.
口语第 2 题
1. Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Teachers should make their lessons fun.
2. Some students prefer to study for only one long time during a week. Others students
prefer to study for several short times during a week. Which way do you prefer and why?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.
口语第 3 题
【学生意见】男的认为建议很好。第一， 导游会有帮助，另外男的是学历史的，可以去当导游， 把知识分享给别人，也是一个工作经验。第二是学生白天学习很重，没有时间去博物馆，参观博 物馆是很好的休息，更多的学生会去参观。
【学校通知】：信里建议把 math building 的一层改成 cafeteria。Convert large empty room in Maths building into
small cafeteria. Student can eat between classes 2） install recharge outlets in new cafeteria so student can
recharge their laptops.
【学生意见】：女的赞成，说好啊，现在吃饭的地方在 student center,离 building 好远，上课间隙来 来回回很
赶，要是能在一层吃东西会朋友该多好，然后又说数学系的楼太旧了，cafeteria 可以 recharge laptop 这样很方便，而且还可以在那干点别的事。（students always use laptops during classes -
allows students to recharge
口语第 4 题
【名词解释】leader price,就是搞个商品降价，打广告吸引顾客来买，这就是领导产品…别人来 了不仅会买这个
?力：例子是 software designer 因为工作很好，就升职做了 supervisor of xxx department，但
是这个人很擅长设计软件，但是不擅长管理，不能在 deadline 之前完成工作，不能 motivate
口语第 5 题
【学生问题】gg 碰到的问题：要在的 newspaper 上发文章，但是照片处理出现些问题。
【解决方法】mm 推荐方 法 1,不要放照片上去。但是 gg 觉得这样文章缺少吸引力。方法 2,还有一天的时间，争取重新去拍照片。
口语第 6 题
的地方去，所以只是保持跟它所在的环境颜色一样。分别举了一种 frog 和一种 lizard 作例
【主题】鲱鱼是一种经济鱼类，然而现在，在某个 bay，鲱鱼的数量大大下降，政府建议 说应该限制鲱鱼的捕捞
Reading：文章反驳说这种说法达不到效果，原因有三：（1）政府没有考虑到鲱鱼的 predator， 有一种鱼吃掉了很大数量的鲱鱼，这才是鲱鱼数量下降的主要原因，所以应该控制鲱鱼的捕 食者的数量；（2） 鲱鱼是 livestock 和 poultry 的主要蛋白质来源，如果限制了捕捞，那么很多 farm 就得不到蛋白质来源，从而受到影响；（3）fishing limit 还会减少很多就业岗位，很多鲱鱼 的捕捞者，加工者和交易商会因为鲱鱼产业的萧条而失去工作，这个产业提供了本地区的大 多数就业机会，整个地区的经济会因此受到影响。
Listening：（1）鲱鱼的 predator 是 part of the whole ecosystem，它的存在使很多其他种类 的鱼的数量 under control。所以更好的做法还是限制捕捞，不要 disturb the balance of
environment;（2）作为蛋白质来源，鲱鱼可以被 soybean 所替代。因为大豆对于 livestock 和 poultry 来说也是很好的蛋白质来源并且大豆供给充足。 Farm 根本不会受限制捕捞的影响；（3） 文中说经济会受影响真是目光短浅。 这种 fishing limit 只是 temporary 的，目的只是为了让 鲱鱼数量回到正常水平，一旦回到了正常水平，渔业又可以繁荣发展起来。如果现在不限制 捕捞，以后整个经济才会真正的 collapse。
Passage: microcredit 不能解决贫困问题。
1）borrower 没有 business skill，做生意很容易失败
2）小额贷款会 increase 银行的 administration cost，是 inefficient 的。
3）如果政府把钱投入 microcredit 里面，就不能投到其它方面了。
1）agencies 提供 other services，比如教 borrower 怎么记账，怎么利润？大化等等。
2）文章说的问题很好解决：银行可以把钱借给由 4-5 个人组成的 small groups，这样在 相同的 cost 下帮助了贫困的人。
3）由于提供小额贷款的都是 agencies，政府其实在这方面 save 了 money，这样政府就 能把钱投到小型贷款不能融资的大型工程，比如建一栋楼什么的。
3 erdstall 可能有三种用途：一储存牲口或粮食 ,二躲避强盗 ,三宗教用途 灵魂等候区 但是被 lecture 反驳。
1）储存牲口或粮食： 在冬天 erdstall 都被淹没了，而且也没发现里面有谷类残留。
2）躲避强盗： erdstall 太小了，存氧气很少，只能容得下几个人。另外，只有一个入口，不太 可能像为了逃跑设计的。
3）宗教用途。 如果是的话，应该所有有共同宗教信仰的村子都有，但是有的村子有，有的 村子没有。
在 Rhone river 发现了一个 bust
阅读：passage 里面认为是罗马的一个 leader-凯撒大帝，塬因有叁。
2. 雕塑特点和罗马铸币上凯撒相似（the style of hair）；
3. 发现雕塑的地点在一条河，以前人们想销毁它，因为有新的 leader 上任，留着它是不 respect。
2. 雕塑的特点也不完全一致，凯撒有 Slim nose and long leg，和雕塑不符合；
3.?后一塬因罗马人把没有用的雕塑都往河里扔，举了一个叫 Neptune 的雕塑，是古罗马
Cloud Seeding 技术的利弊，阅读支持，？力反对。
1.实际上也会降低 rain and snow 的形成率，造成干旱，减产。
2.亚洲是在城市中做的实验，污染多，云层状态不一样；在美国，我们是 unpolluted 的， 很可能不能直接 repeat （哎- -）
3. 那些数据太片面，实际上很多地区（在那个地区的 east south and north）都 ruduce the damage 了，所以也很有可能是 change of climate 造成的。
讲 congestion pricing。 说为了缓解交通拥堵，解决办法就是在 city 中的某个区域收费，这 样就能缓解一下。
第一个 point. 这样做可以 improve time（主要就是说节省时间）
第二个 point. 可以改善环境 improve that area’s environment
第三个 point. 收的 fee 可以用于 revenue（这个单词没记住怎么拼大概就） the city 可以再 修路，修桥什么的：
lecture 中，professor 否定了这个观点。
1. 他认为这样做有些司机不愿意花钱走这个区域就得绕路，更浪费时间。举了个例子：送 快递的，他们要省钱，所以送快递的时候会变长。
2.在收费区里面环境可能会好点，但是周围的车相对就会增多，noise and air pollution 就会多。 所以不是整个 city 都能环境变好
3.有的人不能 afford 这个费用了，就会去坐 subway，政府就得出更多的钱维护 subway，这
it’s about the cities’ congestion pricing policy, the reading is in the positive attitude: 1.time saving
2.good for the environment 3.considerable revenue. While, the speaker refutes the three points one by one.
英文版：It’s about the cities’ congestion pricing policy; the reading is in the positive attitude:
2.good for the environment
While, the speaker refutes the three points one by one.
The causes of moving rocks. Reading
1、high wind might move the heavy rocks
2. Here is another possibility – ice. It’s possible that rain on the desert floor could turn to thin sheets of ice when temperatures drop at night. So if rocks becoming bed in ice, a piece of ice with rocks in it could be pushed around by the wind.
3. People are moving the rocks
1. there are remarkable trail behind the rocks as they moved from one point to another, which means considerable resistance, so they are not supposed to be pushed by the wind.
2. the place is not cold enough to form the ice, moreover, the limited precipitation determined there are not enough water could be turn to ice.
4.there are no footprints, no horse tracks, nothing was left so nothing was brought in to move these heavy rocks.
In the lecture, the professor makes several points about that the reasons of moving rocks have been eliminated the possibilities that mention in the passage.
Contrary to the belief in the passage that high wind might move the heavy rocks, the professor
asserts that there are remarkable trail behind the rocks as they moved from one point to another,
which means considerable resistance, so they are not supposed to be pushed by the wind.
The author of the passage points out that it’s possible that rain on the desert floor could turn to
thin sheets of ice when temperatures drop at night. So if rocks becoming bed in ice, a piece of ice with rocks in it could be pushed around by the wind. While the lecture notes that the place is not cold enough to form the ice, moreover, the limited precipitation determined there are not enough water could be turn to ice.
The professor argues that there are no footprints, no horse tracks, nothing was left so nothing was brought in to move these heavy rocks. This is different from the reading, which states that people are moving the rocks.
阅读说，一个 TLP 的现象，就是观察月光以判断 EVENTS 什么的。但是呢，这个现象不靠 谱啊。
2. 可能是 METEORS STRIKING 啥的（这词记不清）造成的。
3. 可能是 ROCKS 造成的
那 LECTURE 就说：
1。要是真是器械随机误差造成，那么 REPORTS 应该也显示光反射的随机性哇，就是
2. 你那个 METEORS STRIKING 虽然发生，但是，拜托！这个只发生 1 秒好伐？但是 TLP 在月亮上头有 20 分钟哎…
3. 虽然你个石头有可能反光，但是吧，那个月球本身的光照要亮好多吧多…那个 ROCK 的 是很 WEAK 的。
In the reading, the author presents three reasons to refute the TLP method in astronomy which principle is to judging events by observing moonlight. However, in the lecture, the professor contends the casts doubt on the reading by using the following three points.
First of all, the reading contends that the moonlight could be generated by random errors of
equipment like telescope. Whereas, the professor thinks even so, the final report should show the randomicity of light reflection—that is, the light should be displayed everywhere. However, only in two particular positions could lights be detected.
Moreover, contrary to the belief in the passage that the light could be produced by meteors’
striking, the professor asserts that the occurrence of meteors’ striking could just last for 1 second, which forms a sharp contrast with the 20 minutes’ duration of TLP on the moon.
Finally, the reading attribute the light to rocks. On the contrary, the professor points out that the light reflected by the rocks is several times weaker than moonlight. （171 words）
9 一般 empire 统治的时间都比较长，但是 Empire Akkadiaslast short time.
1. 民众造反（被征服者的反抗 rebellion impaired government）
3. 老想在贸易上占个主动，别的国家都不乐意和他 们合作，贸易伙伴的制裁（trade resistance.）
1.不怪民众造反，怪他们早把防御的墙拆了。因为这 个 Akkad帝国已经有高墙，没有外国侵 略。反动势力在 Empire 初期已被消亡，即使有很少的存在也不成大气候。
2. 尽管偶尔老天不助，他们早就学会储备食物了（和另 外一个技术还是什么，反正能整够吃
的）。这个 Empire 有很好的 agriculture system,比如说 irrigation system.
3. 他们早已将贸易合作开拓到很广泛的程度，举例：2 个地方。（searching for new trades）
讲古代（L 开头单词）的 cave painting。 给了好大一幅马的画，说画这些洞穴壁画是跟 hunting 有关。
【2】 壁画中有些人型动物头得图案，说是 因为他们常常用动物头伪装成动物打猎，所以
【1】 画里面还有很多他们不捕捉的小动物， 比如说 cat,也有一些没有箭头，也没有受伤
【2】 他们除了用 animal heads 伪装自己打猎 以外，这个 heads 还有其他用途。
【3】 好像跟神有关了，？的时候？懂了，结 果写完上面 2 点，发现这点记不是很清楚了，
a 同时出现不代表有因果关系，有很多地方没有人但是动物还不是个屁了，所以说是一个全 球性的影响，比如气候；
综合写作：structures were designed as forts?
1, walls are not surrounded the site of all sides, so the site is vunlnerable
2, many entranceways are on the walls. enemy can get into the site easily.
3, no evidence there were wells inside the site. lack of water make the city cannot bear the porlonged war
1, places where are no wall have natural protective
2, entrance can make peple in the site get out to defend the enemy before the enemy get closer to the site. And the entranceways are not wide. So, the enemy cannot get into it easily.
3, the enemy would not take much food and water with them during that time. Thus, if it is a prolonged war, it would be withdrawed.
讲 red rain 在 indian Karele（好像是这么拼）
第 1 个是 comet theory, 说有人说？到巨响， 所以有可能是这样， 那些红雨其实是陨石碎片
第 2 个可能是说是红色的沙子， 从 north afirca/abadia（拼的似乎不对） 吹来的
第 3 个可能是 chilen（拼的不对， 应该是苔藓植物的一种） spores, 因为这种 spores 在 karele 附
近都是红色的， 而且有很大产量， 所以非常非常有可能是因为这个原因
1. 过去 100 年里一共下了 3 次红雨， 3 次陨石在同一个地方是 very rare.
2.the red dust from deserts are contained a lot of chemical elements, such as Iron and phosphorus, 但是那种雨里这些化学物质的？量是 very small of amount
3. 那种 spores 也不太可能， 讲了他们的 LIFE CIRCLE 说如果他们同时进入 reproductive phase 才能释放 spores, 所以同时进入这个 Phase 的几率也基本等于 0.
主题 ： 对 red rain 的解释
1.过去 100 年里一共下了 3 次红雨， 3 次陨石在同一个地方是非常罕见的不太可
2. 红色的沙子里含有很多的化学物质比如铁和磷，但是这些化学物质在红雨中 含量很少
3.从孢子的生命周期来看，他们只有同时进入 reproductive phase 才能释放 spores, 而 同时进入这个 Phase 的几率也基本等于 0.
In the lecture, the professor makes several points about causes of red rain. The professor argues that comet explosion, red dust and lichen releasing spores cannot be associated with red rain. However, the reading passage holds the totally disparate points in these three aspects.
The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about improbability of comet explosion. The professor shows that Kerala where red rain happened three times during last ten decades couldn’t be the place where comet exploded three times coincidently. This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that red rain results from a deluge of substances in red after comet explosion. It is said that residents in Kerala haven’t seen the red rain until they heard a loud sound that may be associated with comet explosion.
Secondly, the professor also claims that there is the difference concerning composition between red dust and red rain. As he states, red dust contains many metallic elements like Fe. Red rain,
contrary to red dust, hardly contains those. So there is connection between red dust and red rain. But this makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely; red dust coming from desert area contributes to red rain.
Lastly, the professor rebuts the reading argument by pointing out the inadequacy that that lichen
releases spores causes red rain, and by undermining the assumption that lichen own their life
circle. And a lot of spores should be released at the same time in red rain, while each lichen
possesses unique reproductive phase that means they cannot release many spores concurrently.
However, the reading illustrates that the most likely reason of red rain is lichen releasing spores,
especially red spores. And Kerala is the place where grows abundant lichen.（295）
2 大象会画画是因为有人训练它，教它动作（训象人用摸耳朵的方式）并不是它真的有能力 3 大象不是怕老鼠，是因为它对没见过的东西警觉，这是动物本能，当动物园里的大象（对 老鼠熟悉了），就根本不在乎了
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The best way to reduce air pollution is for the government to raise the cost of fuel （petrol）。
2 在家工作好 , 还是去公司工作好 我直接选了？简单一面倒。
原因是 1. flexiable schedule 2. decrease the cost from the
company（such as office and furniture） 3. reduce the globle warming since most people wont commute to work. decrease the automobile use.
With science and technology develops rapidly in the field of telecommunication and information transportation, many new forms of working have come into being. Some people believe that telecommuting is a better way than working in the office, for its convenience and flexibility. However, I oppose this statement.
Admittedly, telecommuting can provide certain convenience. He/she no longer need
time-consuming trip to work place thus avert disgusting traffic jams during rush hours. He can
also make a flexible working schedule and needn’t obey those rigid timetables in traditional
working ways any more. All mentioned above are the limited advantages of telecommuting.
However, I must point out the disadvantages of this working style are also apparent.
Firstly, working at home is easy to cause lower efficiency than doing in the office. For many
people, they can reach an excellent working performance with high productivity under certain
pressures. While working with others together or under the supervision of leaders, one often feels
a kind of pressure prompting him, because if he failed, he would lag behind in the competition
with his colleagues or would be criticized by his boss. With a hard working attitude, the person’s
efficiency would probably improve. Supposing there is no such pressure from competition or from being supervised, as working at home, one would slack down and produce low in the work.
Therefore, only with extremely high capability in self-control can people be eligible
Besides, staying at home for a long time is unfavorable for one to establish and keep interpersonal relationships with his boss or colleagues. If we choose to work at home, we should probably stay indoors individually, lacking of social activities. As a result, we should become estranged by
others and will never reach success. In contrast, working in office can avoid the situation and
consequence mentioned above.
In conclusion, due to the serious consequences discussed above, I strongly disagree with the idea that telecommuting is better than working in the office.（326）
Should the government support artists or should artists support themselves?
艺术家刚起步的时候生活很拮据，没有足够的钱保证基本的生活需求； 如果政府能资助艺术家，会鼓励更多的人投身艺术，做出更好的作品； 思路2： 不同意
1. Movies and television programs should present stories in which good people are rewarded and bad people are punished.
2. Parents should allow children to make mistakes and let them learn from their own mistakes.
3. Professional athletes, such as football and basketball players, do not deserve the high salaries that they are paid.
Works of arts can do people much good like offering us visual pleasure and nurturing our mind.
However, the creation of the art usually cost a lot of money and the problem of who should fund
artists has triggered a debate among the public. Some people claim that the government should
support artists financially, while others hold that artists should support themselves. I personally
believe both the government and artists themselves should be responsible for the support.
The government should give artists financial assistance because it is capable of offering the help
and artists contribute a lot to the society. Every citizen has to pay taxes to the government, which
is quite a large sum of money. Taxes come from citizens and are supposed to be used for citizens.
In other words, the government should not only subsidize schools and hospitals which directly
benefit citizens and but also subsidize those who contribute to the society indirectly. Artists like
painters create great works. When these works are done, they are not just used as visual feasts,
they also enable us to learn something about the creator’s thoughts. For instance, when you
appreciate Van Gogh’s series of Sunflowers paintings, you will find that the paintings are not just paintings. They reflect something about the author. The life span of sun flowers are relatively short, just like Van Gogh, who died at s young age. However, the color of sun flowers is very bright, which conveys a positive thought. His works inspired many people.
Van Gogh’s death can be partly attributed to his poverty. Had the government given him some support, he might have lived longer and created more masterpieces.
However, artists also have the responsibility to support themselves. For one thing, there are so
many artists now and if the government supports all of them, it would be such great financial
burden. The government could use the money for more meaningful fields like education and
medicine. For another, some artists are able to make plenty of money and they do not need extra
government support. It was reported that some artists’ work worth hundreds and thousands of
dollars. If the government gives those successful artists financial support, it would be a great loss.
From what I have discussed above, we can see that the government should support some talented artists whose careers are not prosperous. Nevertheless, for some artists who are already living a good life, they can support themselves.
4 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teaching is harder than it was in the
Young people today are less dependent on their parents than in the past.
Teachers had a greater influence on young people in the past than they do today.
Young people today do not respect their teachers as much as they did in the past.
Which way do you think is the best for a student to make new friends. a. joing a sports team,
b. participate in community activities, c. traveling
1. If your teacher says something incorrect in a class, what will you do?
a. Interrupt your teacher right away;
b. keep silent;
c. correct your teacher after class.
It is probably true that we have hundreds or even thousands of acquaintances, but not all of them can be considered to be our friends. With or without our full awareness, friends must share a great portion of our character, our beliefs and our interests. An activity that can help you make new friends surely enables you to form a better understanding of other people and vice versa. Thus, joining a sports team would be my first choice.
To begin with, certain type of sport attracts people with certain character. Therefore your chance
of meeting a potential friend while doing it is high. For instance, people who love Snooker are
normally calm and steady; People who find themselves passionate for fishing must enjoy the long
waiting before the thrilling bite; And rock-climbers are usually strong both physically and
psychologically. If you like this type of sport, you might like the person who shares your interest
In addition, sports provide us a goal to fight for. Hence they build up a precious experience for the
participants, which is essential for long-lasting friendship. I used to be in the basketball team of
our high school and I played as the guard. Although it was almost five years ago, I can still
remember all the exiting moments when we won and the tears after we lost the final. They are so
vivid as if they just happened yesterday. And although our team members went to different
universities, we still keep in touch with each other and hang out together from time to time. Every
time we get reunited, these important memories always give us the feeling that we have never
Furthermore, sports can help reveal the deep truth of someone. Friendship innately embodies a profound understanding that each friend has for the other. Undeniably, we more or less put on some make-up on our personality, for we all want other people to like us. But those moments
under high pressure or choices involving loss and gain will inevitably reveal who we really are and what we truly believe. And such moments or choices are never rare in sports. Would you
cheat to win a game or rather loss it honestly? If your fellow player has more chance than you to accomplish a goal, will you pass the ball to him or her? These situations always tell. As a result, we can always see friendship built or damaged.
To conclude, joining a sports team may never fail your expectation to make some new friends. It
brings people together and accelerates the process of understanding each other. If you don’t have a
favorite sport yet, do some research to find one. If you already have your answer, join a team and
meet some new fellows there, maybe your best friend to be has already been awaiting（475）。
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Modern agriculture methods
damage the environment, but providing food for the growing population around the world is more important than protecting the environment.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers were more appreciated and valued by the society in the past than they are now.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Workers would be much happier if
they are doing different types of tasks during their workday than doing the same task.
Some people spend a lot of time watching sports programs on TV or following their favorite sports teams. Does this have a negative influence on the lives of these people?
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In order to attract good students, a university should spend a lot of money funding social activities.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? We should state our honest opinions even though other people may disagree with them.
Movies and TV programs made in your own country are more interesting comparing to movies and programs made in other countries, agree or disagreee.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? An effective leader will make others feel like they are a part of making decisions.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In order to attract good students, a university should spend a lot of money funding social activities.