其实雅思小作文很简单:主体段(3)

发表于:2014-06-18 16:38 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

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8. 介词

介词在小作文中的价值可见一斑,准确使用介词对于取得高分至关重要,因此在准备知识里诸老师重点给出三个常用介词的使用方法,这三个介词经常用于动态数据描写,分别是to, by, of。在使用的时候,我们要注意by是跟在动词后面,表示的是幅度,而of是跟在名词后面,同样表示幅度,to则既可以跟在动词也可以跟在名词之后,表示的是最终的数值大小。下面我们来看几个例子:

1). This year unemployment has increased by 20,000 cases.

2). This year there has been an increase in unemployment of 5%.

3). This year unemployment has risen to 10%.

4). This year there has been a rise in unemployment to 10%.

在第一和第三个句子中,划线单词都为不及物动词,而在第二和第四个句子里,划线单词都是名词,我们需要根据中文意思的不同,准确地按照上述理论来使用这几个介词,避免不必要的失分。此外,在静态数据的描写中,我们也会用到另外2个介词,at和with, 关于它们的用法在后面主体段写作演示中会有详细的说明。


9. 倍数

不论是静态还是动态数据,我们在描述中经常会发现某2个数据间存在倍数关系,或者某一个数据在经过增长后和前面一个时间点的数据存在倍数关系,这时候,从高分的角度来说,我们需要对于这些倍数作适当的描述。表示倍数关系的单词主要有以下这些:double / triple / quadruple(2/3/4倍), fold, times等。前面三个动词可以直接在句子中表达具体的倍数,一般用于静态数据的描写;而后面两个单词需要借助名词词组的形式来表达倍数,一般用于动态数据:

1). In general, the number of global population rose sharply during the six centuries and climbed to around six billion in 2000, a growth of 12 times.

2). Around 80% of the graduates from college C are able to find employment within six months after graduation. This figure triples that of college A while college B has 50%.

3). Minors constituted nearly 30% of the population in Utah. This figure doubles that of California while Florida had 21%.

我们注意一下第一个句子中的名词短语,其中文意思为增长了12倍,我们可以用a 12-folded growth对其进行替换,效果是一样的,但是中文意思发生了细微的变化,为一个12倍的增长。在第二和第三个句子中,划线的动词都是及物动词,直接可以将倍数关系表达出来,其使用的句子结构大家也不妨仔细体会一下。


10. 短语

雅思小作文中的短语使用一般可以分为分词短语和介宾短语2种用法:

1)分词短语

1). On average, 11% of all households, comprising almost two million people, were in this position.

2). 300 employees attend full-time course, constituting almost one third of all the employees.

3). Next comes tree-cutting, taking away slightly larger areas of land than farming in all the three regions.


在使用分词短语时,我们一定要注意语法的准确性,即分词的逻辑主语必须和主句的主语一致,否则是要导致扣分的。

4). Observing the overall workforce does not lead to any surprises as it simply combines the above two, with about two-thirds of all workers working full-time or long hours, and the remaining one-third working part-time.


2)介宾短语

1). However, those consisting of only one parent or a single adult had almost double this proportion of poor people, with 21% and 19% respectively.

2). Couples generally tended to be better off, with lower poverty levels for couples without children (7%) than those with children (12%).

3). By contrast, the annual distance covered by bicycle, motorbike and air travel only represented an insignificant share, with less than 8 billion passenger kilometers for each.


在第3个例句中,我们要特别注意for each的用法,要将其和respectively区分开来,通过句子的意思来合理使用好这2个词。

4). Role play and education games had less successful sales, with 7% each.

5). In comparison, student expenditure in country C was considerably lower, at only US $1,500 per year.

6). Observing the overall workforce does not lead to any surprises as it simply combines the above two, with about two-thirds of all workers working full-time or long hours, and the remaining one-third working part-time.


在最后一个句子中,介词with引导的数据并列结构用连词and连接,使用时,我们一定要保证连词左右的短语都是名词形式,不能出现动词。


11. 被动语态

被动语态在常规的图表题和示意图中都是一个非常重要的组成部分,尤其对于增加句型变化和增加表达复杂度上起了很关键的作用,以下我们来具体看一下被动语态在学术类小作文主体段中的使用理论及法则。

1)流程图

我们在写流程图的时候同一个动作用2种语态皆可表达,但是若使用被动语态,既避免了主语选择时的纠结,同时也增加了文章的字数,如:

1). In the first stage, the used bottles, discarded by customers, are collected at the collecting point.

2). Following this, the clean bottles are transported by the trucks to the glass factory where they are broken into glass pieces which are put into a furnace


在上面这个句子中,我们可以看到作者连续使用了定语从句这个语法点,然后用被动语态的方式串联前后的动作,这是高分的一种表达惯用方式,大家不妨仔细品味一下其中的写作理论。

3). In the final stage, new and empty bottles are filled with liquid, packed and dispatched to the supermarket ready to be picked by consumers.

4). Nitrogen is poured in. Water is needed only when it is hot in weather.

 

2)地图题

在地貌变迁图里被动语态的使用相对于流程图来说就更加灵活了,因为地貌变迁图句型的选择面更广,因此被动语态相对来说就成为一种辅助的语法。如:

1). The year 1860 saw a doubling in the number of homes, but the size of farmland and woods was reduced by half.

2). In the same year, a bridge could be seen over the river and a road was constructed linking the river to the residences.

3). Several school buildings and sports facilities were constructed at the south-eastern corner of the village, which were connected with the residential area in the north by a newly-built road.


3)动态数据

在连续的2段动态变化趋势中,不论相反或者相似,都可以用被动语态来进行句型的切换使之达到更加生猛的效果。如:

1). The number of world population rose slowly in the first 400 years from 1400. However, this was suddenly replaced by a sharply upward trend after 1800 and the figure surged to over 6 billion in 2000.

2). In the first 20 years, the amount of oil discovered increased dramatically by 50%. However, from 1990 onwards, it was suddenly replaced by a sharply downward trend and is predicted to dip to only 20,000 barrels in 2020.


在上面的2个例句中,细心的同学一定会发现,在动态数据变化的描写中,我们喜欢用replace这个动词,加上upward/downward这2个形容词来组合。没错,这几个单词就是我们一开始在采用这种句式时的惯用词汇,大家务必要记住。另外,在句子的衔接上,我们要用表示转折的连词。

3). From Monday to Friday, the dinner sales rose gradually by 20%. However, it was suddenly replaced by a downward trend when the weekend set in, dipping quickly by 10%.

4). This rise in passenger kilometer number was recorded in air, bus an rail travel but a slight decline was actually found in bicycle and motorbike travel.


在第4个例句中,我们用被动语态来对动态数据的变化作一小结,同时也进行了横向对比,这是被动语态在动态数据中的一种灵活使用方式。

5). This upward trend is expected to last through to the year 2021, when the population is estimated at 87,657,000, more than double the 1901 figure.


4)静态数据

1). The rest of the students’ spending was divided among leisure, books and others.

2). Leisure spending constituted a larger percentage(20%) of student expenditure in both country A and country B, while in country C more money was spent on books(21%) than on leisure(12%).


上述11个重要的准备知识点大家是不是已经掌握了呢?有没有感觉有那么点意思了呢?在接下来的系列文章中诸老师就要具体带大家来实践了噢。


(未完待续)

 

 

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