如何写好流程图

发表于:2014-06-24 16:20 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

一、流程图写作特点及写作要点:
很多同学对流程图产生了十分恐惧的心理,一旦考到流程图就会抱怨自己的运气有多糟糕。但事实上,只要把握流程图写作的几大要领,流程图将不再可怕。以下,朗阁雅思培训中心写作组的专家总结了流程图写作的几个要点供考生参考:
1. 找到流程图的过程,起点,终点。
2. 找到图上标出的已知动作,如果出现生词,尽量猜测。无词,用自己的语言。
3. 按照步骤,分段描述,千万不能省略任何一步。
4. 切记!加入流畅合理的表示顺序的关联词。
5. 句型以主动为主,搭配被动,以及主语从句(例如:It can be seen from the graph that…)。
6. 时态要使用一般现在时。

例文分析:
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The illustrations below show how chocolate is produced.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features.
Write at least 150 words.

 

【高分范文及深度点评】
The diagram shows the stages in the process of making chocolate.【所有的小作文第一句话都要用一般现在时。流程图必备三个词:process整个过程;stage阶段;step步骤】

Chocolate comes from the cacao tree, which is grown in parts of South America, Africa and Indonesia.【开头不能一上来就直接介绍cacao tree,而是通过主题词chocolate引出,否则显得太唐突】
【流程图特点之一:介绍过程要使用一般现在时】
【流程图特点之二:大量使用定语从句,将有关联的两句话连接。】
【流程图特点之三:大量使用被动语态】The tree produces large red pods which contain white cocoa beans.

Firstly,【流程图特点之四:使用一些表示顺序的连接词】when the pods are ripe, they are harvested, the beans are removed and they are fermented for several days in large wooden boxes.【三个句子的并列:“句子A, 句子B and 句子C”。】

During the fermenting process, the beans turn brown.
【流程图特点之五:要适当地添加个别图中没有交代但能从图片中直接读出来的一些内容,否则可能达不到字数要求。但是一定要把握尺度,千万不要加上自己的主观观点,否则会扣分】

Next, the brown beans are spread in the sun to dry. They are then put in large sacks and transported by train or lorry. After this, the beans are taken to a chocolate factory where they are roasted in an oven at temperatures of between 250 and 350 degree Celsius.

After being roasted, the beans are crushed and the outer shell is removed. This part is not needed for making chocolate. Finally, the inner part of the bean is pressed and liquid chocolate is produced.

【流程图特点之六:一般不需要写总结】


雅思流程图范文《砖块的制作》(含9分范文及考官点评)
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the process by which bricks are manufactured for the building industry.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

Brick manufacturing
 

* Clay: type of sticky earth that is used for making bricks, pots, etc.

【满分范文】
The process by which bricks are manufactured for the building industry can be outlined in seven consecutive steps. First the raw material, clay, which was just below the surface of soil in certain clay-rich areas has to be dug up by a digger.

Then the lumps of clay are placed on a metal grid in order to break up the big chunks of clay into much smaller areas, which fall through the metal grid onto a roller, whose motion further segregates the bits of clay. Sand and water are added to make a homogenous mixture, which is then either formed in moulds or cut into brick-shaped pieces by means of a wire cutter.

Those fresh bricks are then kept in a drying oven for at least 24 and a maximum of 48 hours, several dozens if not hundreds of bricks at a time. The dried bricks are then transferred to a so-called kiln, another type of high temperature oven. First they are kept at a moderate temperature of 200 ℃ -1300 ℃. This process is followed by cooling down the finished bricks for 48 to 72 hours in a cooling chamber.

Once the bricks have cooled down and have become hard, they get packaged and delivered to their final destination, be it a building site or storage.

(215 words)

【考官评语】
Band 9
This response fully satisfies the requirements of the task. All key features of each stage of the process are appropriately and accurately presented. An excellent overview is given at the beginning of the response and this skilfully incorporates part of the rubric, changing the grammatical function, to give a brief summary of the whole process. The message is very easy to read, with seamless cohesion that attracts no attention. Paragraphing, linking and referencing are all skilfully managed. The language used is very fluent and sophisticated. A wide range of vocabulary and structures are used with full flexibility and accuracy. Only rare minor ‘slips’ can be found and these do not detract from the high rating.

二、雅思流程图的重点词汇解析:
表述时间:
in 10 days
during the period of 10 days
The process lasts for up to 10 days
after 10 days
10 days passed until something happened.
表示然后:then, next, in the next state, following that, after that, the next step in the stage is ....
表示过程:process, procedure, formation, development
表示步骤:step, stage, phase
时间阶段:after a period of …months/days/minutes, during…
顺序连词:first, first of all, in the first stage, initially, to begin with
second, then, next, also
after that, at the same time, in the meantime, meanwhile
prior to, until
the first stage involves … / in the second stage / in the third stage /
in the last stage / The next step in the stage is that….
目的连词:in order to / in order that; so as to / so that

常见动词:
produce生产, lay放置, accumulate积累, gather/collect收集, obtain获得, heat up加热, expand膨胀, bend弯曲, turn off关闭, cool down冷却, disconnect断开连接, spin旋转/纺, strike打击, compress压缩, release释放, expand膨胀, move/flow流动, accelerate加速, form形成, press按压, adjust调整, absorb吸收, form形成, process加工, rotate旋转, chop坎, grind磨(碎)/碾(碎), light点燃, burn燃烧, ignite点燃, reflect反光, turn转, starts开始, stops结束, records录音, turns up调高, turns down调低, winds缠绕, unwinds解开, revolves旋转, fold折叠, unfold打开, reverse颠倒/倒转, adapt适应, adjust调整, alter改变, cure治愈, disappear消失, dissolve溶化/解散, exchange交换, expand扩张/膨胀, fade退色, increase增长, promote促进/升职, reduce减少, renew使更新/使恢复, renovate革新/更新/修复, replace取代, swell肿胀, switch改变, transform完全改变, vary改变, swap交换, shrink收缩, melt溶解, heal/cure治愈, form/come into being/take shape形成, produce生产, gain/get/acquire获取, evaporate蒸发, volatilize挥发, draw提取, recycle回收, extract拔, absorb吸收, collect收集, meet相遇, be made up of由...组成, be made of由...制成, be made from由…制成, feed on以...为食, depend on/rely on依赖, release/send out释放, sort分类, separate分开, conveyed运送, cut into切成, poured into倒入, heated加热, melted into融化成, flows into流入

分类: 杂货铺

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