9月14日托福考情回顾

发表于:2014-09-14 21:19 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

2014914日大陆地区托福考情分析

by宁波新东方托福研究院


914日,中国大陆地区的托福考题是2014322日的两套题的结合,ETS在这么短间隔内重复旧题着实有点反常,不过经常关注考情分析的童鞋们应该在暗自窃喜了吧! 这就是论定期查看考情的重要性啦!下面我们一起来回顾下这场托福考试吧!又一波宁波新东方托福研究院新鲜出炉的考生福利,有没有?

 

2014914日大陆地区托福阅读真题回顾                           By 新东方宁波学校托福项目阅读林敏敏老师

 

 

这次阅读整体难度不大,尤其是词汇题。三篇文章题材分别为人类研究、地质地理研究和动物研究,TPO中也有不少相似篇章。

 

三篇词汇题:

ingenuity=cleverness     merely=simply         acquire       random       investigate    inspect =exam         potential          replicate =copy      explicit     underlie       distinct                                  

 

第一篇:Children’s play

题材划分:人类研究

主要内容:

讲pretend play对孩子的作用,分阶段讲。早期的孩子最开始玩什么玩具,后来就能pretend,他们自己pretend他们在吃饭等的一些简单的familiar的事(有题,选关于familiar的),后来就更复杂了,后来小孩可以理解大人pretend的一些事,并参与进来。后来他们就可以扮演了一些社会角色,比如说爸爸、妈妈、护士之类的,类似过家家,他们还知道该停止的时候就得停止(有题,排除题,选他们不知道停止)。说这些不仅对social development和intelligence有好处,还能让孩子认识cognitive the authority and rules.

 

相似TPO练习推荐

TPO6 Infantile Amnesia

TPO30 Role of Play in Development

 

相关知识背景

Imitation and verbal behavior of children

Behaviorists have studied verbal behavior since the 1920s. E.A. Esper (1920) studied associative models of language, which has evolved into the current language interventions of matrix training and recombinative generalization. Skinner (1957) created a comprehensive taxonomy of language for speakers. Baer, along with Zettle and Haynes (1989), provided a developmental analysis of rule-governed behavior for the listener and for the listener Zettle and Hayes (1989) with Don Baer providing a developmental analysis of rule-governed behavior. According to Skinner, language learning depends on environmental variables, which can be mastered by a child through imitation, practice, and selective reinforcement including automatic reinforcement.

B.F. Skinner was one of the first psychologists to take the role of imitation in verbal behavior as a serious mechanism for acquisition. He identified echoic behavior as one of his basic verbal operant, postulating that verbal behavior was learned by an infant from a verbal community. Skinner's account takes verbal behavior beyond an intra-individual process to an inter-individual process. He defined verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the mediation of others”. Noam refuted Skinner’s assumptions.

In the behavioral model, the child is prepared to contact the contingencies to "join" the listener and speaker. At the very core, verbal episodes involve the rotation of the roles as speaker and listener. These kinds of exchanges are called conversational units and have been the focus of research at Columbia's communication disorders department.

Conversational units is a measure of socialization because they consist of verbal interactions in which the exchange is reinforced by both the speaker and the listener. H.C. Chu (1998) demonstrated contextual conditions for inducing and expanding conversational units between children with autism and non-handicapped siblings in two separate experiments. The acquisition of conversational units and the expansion of verbal behavior decrease incidences of physical "aggression" in the Chu study and several other reviews suggest similar effects. The joining of the listener and speaker progresses from listener speaker rotations with others as a likely precedent for the three major components of speaker-as-own listener—say so correspondence, self-talk conversational units, and naming.

 

 

第二篇

题材划分:地质地理

主要内容:

地球内部的构造(有一张图讲各个底层)。说人类只能接触比较表层的构造,然后讲了几种方法可以研究(有问题,问的哪个方法没提到),比如分析火山的坑、还有什么岩石样本。后来讲了有一个特别深的洞(也是一个排除题),是世界上最深的洞,但是这个洞相比较而言还是很浅,还是到达不了地球的内部,所以不能研究地球内部。用实验模拟地球内部的环境,看看哪些物质能在高温、高压下面比较稳定,但是这种方法不能确定地球内部物质组成的比例。如果地球一直散热的话,地球早就冷了(有题,问为什么没有冷掉),但是没有冷是因为很多物质可以有热辐射,加上地球内部比外部的温度高很多,内部的岩石在高温高压的情况下可以运动,这就造成了convection(有题,说关于这个convection哪个是错的),然后举了个例子来理解,说就像在玻璃里面,还说这造成了板块运动,板块运动非常慢,一年只有几厘米,但是在地质学的时间来看,这种运动非常的快。

 

 

相似TPO练习推荐

TPO7  The Geologic History of the Mediterranean

TPO28  Groundwater

 

相关知识背景

Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's rocky mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the earth to the surface. It is the driving force that causes tectonic plates to move around the Earth's surface.

The Earth's surface is divided into a number of tectonic plates that are continuously being created and consumed at their opposite plate boundaries. Creation (accretion) occurs as mantle is added to the growing edges of a plate. This hot added material cools down by conduction and convection of heat. At the consumption edges of the plate, the material has thermally contracted to become dense, and it sinks under its own weight in the process of subduction at an ocean trench. This subducted material sinks to some depth in the Earth's interior where it is prohibited from sinking further. The subducted oceanic crust triggers volcanism.

 

 

第三篇:

题材划分:动物学 (与20131215日阅读的第二篇一样)

主要内容:

因为猩猩没法发音,很多人就开始对教猩猩的手语比较感兴趣了(有题,问为什么开始对教猩猩感兴趣);第二段讲了一个实验,说让猩猩待在一群人中间,这群人不说话,都是用手语表达,还做了一些特别的帮助,来教猩猩手语(排除题,问哪个方法没用到)。猩猩学了很多词,还能同时说2个词了,2个词是有结构的而不是ramdom(词汇题),最后猩猩还会创新,说了一个water bird(有题,问water bird说明了什么)。第三段讲第二段的这个实验发表在科学杂志上面了,刺激了很多人研究猩猩的手语,结果这些热情因为一个实验给停止了(有题,问对这种研究的热情怎么停止了)。讲这个实验表面,猩猩学了很多词,也能用2个词来表达。但是小孩的词汇量达到一定程度就可以说一些句子,但是猩猩的词汇量到了125,还是不能表达复杂的句子,而且猩猩只能说2个词,如果说3、4个词,他就只能重复,比如说Nim(一个名字) eat,you eat,它这么说只是为了强调,而不是为了表达。第四段讲得一个film,一个trainer教猩猩,猩猩更多的是重复trainer的话。最后一段比较了一下孩子和猩猩,说孩子可以说很多变化的句子。

 

 

相似TPO练习推荐

TPO9 Reflection in Teaching

TPO13 Methods of Studying Infant Perception

 

相关知识背景

 

Chimpanzees make tools and use them to acquire foods and for social displays; they have sophisticated hunting strategies requiring cooperation, influence and rank; they are status conscious, manipulative and capable of deception; they can learn to use symbols and understand aspects of human language including some relational syntax, concepts of number and numerical sequence; and they are capable of spontaneous planning for a future state or event.

Chimps communicate in a manner similar to human nonverbal communication, using vocalizations, hand gestures, and facial expressions. Research into the chimpanzee brain has revealed chimp communication activates an area of the chimp brain in the same position as Broca's area, a language center in the human brain.

There is some debate as to whether chimpanzees have the ability to express hierarchical ideas in language. Studies have found that chimps are capable of learning a limited set of sign language symbols, which they can use to communicate with human trainers. However, it is clear that there are distinct limits to the complexity of knowledge structures with which chimps are capable of dealing. The sentences that they can express are limited to specific simple noun-verb sequences and are not capable of the indefinite expansion of complexity characteristic of humans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014914日大陆地区托福听力真题回顾                           By 新东方宁波学校托福项目听力李俊毅老师

Conversation 1

小姑娘的教授找她讨论一些问题(有题),关于她们组的research paper。教授然后问另外两个人,姑娘说他们在图书馆做Assignment(有题)。教授于是说你们research paper的topic(关于study habit有题)我很喜欢,就是方法我觉得不太好。小姑娘询问原因。教授说,你们要知道有个现象,就是在别人意识到你们要做什么的时候,他们下意识会做得更好。然后教授说你们在library做这个research,你就要大家知道。小姑娘就说尽管我们不打算把它当做一个secret(有题)有什么问题吗?教授说就是这个了。说以前在一个plant(有题)里做research, 然后调查生产效益和light亮度的关系,他们发现light亮,生产效率也有的提高,暗也有的提高,姑娘说这个不make sense。教授说这个就是现象,不想学生从头再来,但需要改变一下方法,再来协商。

 

-TPO部分对应参考 (论文科研 TPO12-C1/TPO22-C2)

-TPO对应词汇



 

Lecture 1

讲了美国的history。一开始教授就说我们能从人们的活动中获取很多信息,然后就说movie。movie对美国

来说意义很重大,主要是移民。以前1950s的时候人类的活动都是等级鲜明的。同一个class同一个社区的一起玩直到电影的出现(有题)。最早期的时候是小片段无声的,大概20分钟左右。为了让人们能一直不停在电影院看到电影,有tons的电影没有传下来。那时候进电影院还是不用票。你想来就来想走就走。无声电影促进了这些等级的boundary的消失。人们不用担心自己,因为听不懂外语而看不了电影。同时大家也可以举家看电影,小baby可以任意放他们在电影院玩耍。没有声音也不用担心他们的screaming(有题)。发展到后来就变成了有声音的电影,人们可以在里面穿插音乐或人们的对话,这种boundary其实是又回来的人们需要听懂英文才能看懂电影(有题)。

 

-TPO部分对应参考 (历史类TPO18-L3/TPO17-L3)

-参考背景


American inventor Thomas Edison began making short motion pictures at the turn of the century. In 1903, a movie called "The Great Train Robbery" was the first to tell a complete story. In 1915, D. W. Griffith made a long, serious movie called "Birth of a Nation."

By the early 1920s, many American towns had a movie theater. Most Americans went to see the movies at least once a week. The movie industry became a big business. People might not know the names of government officials. But they knew the names of every leading actor and actress.

Movies were fun. They provided a change from the day-to-day troubles of life. They also were an important social force.

Young Americans tried to copy what they saw in the movies. And they dreamed about far-away places and a different kind of life. A young farm boy could imagine himself as romantic hero Douglas Fairbanks or comedian Charlie Chaplin. A young city girl could imagine herself as the beautiful and brave Mary Pickford.

Rich families and poor families saw the same movies. Their children shared the same wish to be like the movie stars. In this way, the son of a banker and the son of a factory worker had much in common. The same was true for people from different parts of the country.

 

Lecture 2

生态学,首先学生提问说我对sea A不理解。Professor解释说你知道建房子吧,房子要有个foundation,这个sea A就像foundation一样的(有题)。是起一个key的作用,然后就解释。Sea A吃sea B, sea B吃clep, 然后sea A保护了clep,后来人们大量捕食。大概是捕食A导致了clep数量的减少,不过sea A并没有extinct,现在又有上升的趋势。然后教授说另一种作用就是改变生活的环境,比如说beaver。它对树有损伤,然后制造出有水的环境。和African elephant是吃wooden grass, 但它这个体积庞大的动物把tree都压倒了。然后这个生态环境就变成了grass了。值得一提的是它自己得不到好处的,虽然它是关键,它只是帮别的动物创造生态环境(有题)。

 

-TPO部分对应参考 (生态学TPO10-L3/TPO13-L2/TPO14-L2)

-参考背景


Beavers are famously busy, and they turn their talents to reengineering the landscape as few other animals can. When sites are available, beavers burrow in the banks of rivers and lakes. But they also transform less suitable habitats by building dams. Felling and gnawing trees with their strong teeth and powerful jaws, they create massive log, branch, and mud structures to block streams and turn fields and forests into the large ponds that beavers love.

Domelike beaver homes, called lodges, are also constructed of branches and mud. They are often strategically located in the middle of ponds and can only be reached by underwater entrances. These dwellings are home to extended families of monogamous parents, young kits, and the yearlings born the previous spring.

Beavers are among the largest of rodents. They are herbivores and prefer to eat leaves, bark, twigs, roots, and aquatic plants.

These large rodents move with an ungainly waddle on land but are graceful in the water, where they use their large, webbed rear feet like swimming fins, and their paddle-shaped tails like rudders. These attributes allow beavers to swim at speeds of up to five miles (eight kilometers) an hour. They can remain underwater for 15 minutes without surfacing, and have a set of transparent eyelids that function much like goggles. Their fur is naturally oily and waterproof.

There are two species of beavers, which are found in the forests of North America, Europe, andAsia. These animals are active all winter, swimming and foraging in their ponds even when a layer of ice covers the surface.

                            

Conversation 2

一个男生他要找的一本书里的一页不见了。管理员说这不经常发生,不过也有发生的可能。然后管理员就问topic,男生说是1837年的depression。管理员表示不理解,然后男生说这有点obscure(目的题),他解释了下这个现象。然后管理员就说,这书是不是important。男生说是的,因为这是少数ordinary people收到影响(有题)。然后他就很迷茫说最近也要一个礼拜。管理员说别急,我帮你找一下interlibrary。停顿后,管理员说我在纽约的一个图书馆找到了,男生担心那么远怎么办(有题)。管理员说没事,我正有朋友在那,我可以让他帮你做了copy,然后fax过来,问题就解决了。

 

-TPO部分对应参考 (图书馆书店TPO24-C1/TPO4-C1)

-TPO对应词汇



 

 

Lecture 3

说地球上水的形成。一开始有个理论,开头的时候地球上的温度超级高。然后说地球超级干。接下里就是comet和asteroid,一个是冰的,一个都是rock的。然后说月球上有环形山,就是这个造成的,和地球差不多(有题)。然后说scientist研究Greenland发现他们那边有iri,更像comet上的。但现在科学家又有新发现,发现离太阳比较近的在Jupiter和Mars之间的地带,出现了一种icy asteroid, 经鉴定和地球上的ocean成分很像。然后就有教授cast doubt说那个时候地球还是很热,所以不是这个理论,有专家反驳说那个时候地球已经冷下来了。

 

-TPO部分对应参考 (天文学类 TPO5-L2/TPO22-L2/TPO24-L4) 

-参考背景

The recent research instead concentrated on the possible sources of water in rocks from the lunar highlands. These samples make up some of the oldest moon rocks available for study and are thought to have directly formed from the moon magma ocean. Jessica Barnes, a PhD student in planetary and space sciences at the Open University in theUnited Kingdom, led the research.

By studying the isotopic composition of water present in these rocks, we can examine the history of water in the Earth-moon system closer to the time when these two planetary bodies formed.

The rocks are of volcanic origin and contain apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral that has the same volatile elements as those found in many igneous rocks on Earth. Volatile elements, which include hydrogen, chlorine and sulfur, are the elements that most easily escape from magma.

The presence of these volatile elements in magmatic rocks tells scientists about the composition of the crust, mantle and atmosphere of a planet or moon. And because apatite is hydrogen rich, it suggests that water was present on the moon in the past.

Researchers have found apatite in various types of lunar rocks. And while previous studies have analyzed this mineral in younger lunar rocks and pyroclastic glasses, these samples did not provide ideal material for understanding the original volatile composition of the moon soon after its formation.

 

Lecture 4

讲莎士比亚的教授,上来就说我给你们看的portrait觉得不是真的吧。然后一个女学生说是假的吧。教授然后说portrait是假的,有的莎士比亚的作品,都有人怀疑是不是真的吧。就是在17xx年,一个叫William的银行柜员,说他看到有一个有钱人的私人图书馆,有钱有莎士比亚签名的作品。然后他给他爸爸看,他爸爸很有名,从事和literacy有关的信誉很高,然后他爸爸很兴奋。现在是可以通过测ink来测年份的,至少那时候可不行,只能通过文笔好坏,有人觉得是假的。有觉得可信的人,因为他爸爸有名的。接下来教授说对的,有一部分演出的时候,场下笑声连连,有人说剧本太烂,有人说表演太烂,但也有人说演员不相信这是莎士比亚写的,故意演烂的(有题)。后来那个William就出来澄清了,说是自己写的,因为他想证明自己文笔好。有一句讲那个时候,弄错大文豪的作品是损害reputation。

 

-TPO部分对应参考 (文学戏剧类 TPO5-L4/TPO6-L3/TPO13-L3)

-参考背景


William Shakespeare (baptized 26 April 1564 – died 23 April 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's preeminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon”. His surviving works, including some collaboration, consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, who bore him three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613.  His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the sixteenth century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. In 1623, two of his former theatrical colleagues published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognized as Shakespeare’s. Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the nineteenth century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare's genius, and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called "Mariolatry". In the twentieth century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.

 

加试部分还是经典加试,第二Section

学生丢ID+神经元细胞+英国浪漫主义诗人

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014914日大陆地区托福口语真题回顾

By新东方宁波学校托福项目口语组胡琴清老师

 

  今天914日大陆地区的托福考试结合了今年322日的两套题,在这么短时间内重复旧题ETS是醉了。但一直关注托福考情的同学们就有福了,坐等一周后和托福君分手吧~~下面我们来看看这场托福考试口语部分的解析。

 

Task1:

Talk about a friend of yours and how you met this person.

 

Sample

A special friend of mine is Tony. We’ve known each other since elementary school. Tony and I have lots in common. For example, we have the same taste in music and art. Both of us like listening to Metal music and taking photos. This means we have more activities to do together and things to talk about. Second, I feel free to talk to him about anything because he can keep secrets and give me the suggestion that I need. He would never blame or punish me for the mistakes I make just like my mother do. For example, he is the only person I ‘d talk to when I fail an important test.

 

 

Task 2:

Some students like to take notes in class, others prefer to mainly listen to the teacher. Which di you prefer? Explain why.

 

Sample

I prefer to take lots of notes in class for the following reasons. First, taking notes helps me concentrate. It’s easier to keep up with the lecture when I’m constantly taking notes. I’ll get distracted if I don’t. Especially when I didn’t get a sound night sleep from the night before. Taking notes keeps me from nodding off. Second, notes are helpful when I review class materials.  As I don’t have a great memory, I forget things all the time. Class note is a record of what’s important. It reminds me of the things that might be in test.

 

Task 3

Reading:

The student in the letter proposes the university to add a kitchen in student’s dormitory.

Reason 1: Students can learn cooking skills.

Reason 2: Students can benefit from it.

Conversation:

The man disagrees with the proposal for two reasons:

First, The kitchen will take up too much space for socialization. The spare room should be reserved for TVs and stuff to entertain friends.

Second, students are always busy to study recipes, not to mention cook for themselves, it is more convenient for them to have meals in the school dining hall.

 

Task 4

Term in reading: False Signaling is when predators mimic prey reproductive signals to deceive and capture prey.

Lecture: The professor takes spider& moth as an example. Female moths usually release a certain kind of chemical smell to attract and lead male moths for mating, but the spiders can send out a similar smell to deceive the male moth to come over and capture it in sticky web.

 

Task 5

Problem: The girl who live on the forth floor has to carry her bike up and down and she’s tired of it, so she wants to find a place to store her bike at night.

Solution 1: To lock the bike at the outside bike stand, but the bike can get rusty.

Solution 2: To place it at her friend’s place who live on the first floor, but she has to wake her up every morning, which may disturb her friend as their schedules are not the same.

 

Task 6

Advocacy and direct service are two ways nonprofit organization helps to solve community social problems.

Example 1: Advocacy means the organization convince and motivate people to contribute, like they publish articles or advertisements in newspaper to attract donations and motivate the government to construct more playgrounds for children.

Example 2: Direct service means they contribute directly. For example they collect money and design the playgrounds all by themselves instead of asking for help from others.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014914日大陆地区托福写作真题回顾         

            By 新东方宁波学校托福项目写作张希尔老师

 

综合写作= 140322CN 讨论美国实行agricultural subsidies的利弊

    Topic 议题advantages and disadvantages of American agricultural subsidies

 

Reading

Listening

Thesis 总论点

Pros

These benefits may not exist

Sub-point 1

分论点1

Help stabilize price of crops and supply during food shortage.

The lowered price is due to government subsidies. However, these subsidies can only be made by taxation of consumers. Therefore, consumers actually pay for the stabilized price.

Sub-point2

分论点2

Help developing countries to solve the problem of starvation.

Agricultural subsidies will lower the price of foods and once imported by developing countries, these foods will outcompete the local ones. Therefore, it is not beneficial to the development of local agriculture.

Sub-point 3

分论点3

Help ensure job security in agricultural sector.

Agricultural subsidies can only be used for particular foods like crops, and it will help increase the production of crops. Once the production is enlarged, which means highly mechanized, no more labor force will be needed. And companies that plant other agricultural products will be pushed to bankruptcy, which deepens the problem of unemployment.

 

 

 

独立写作=140322CN

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Younger school children (aged from five to ten) should be required to study art and music in addition to study math, language, science, and history.

 

题目分析:

同学们, 今天的考题属于我们之前讲的利弊类的题目。从背景来分属于教育类话题,也是我们托福考试中常见的一种类别。以下是题目的思路。

 

方法一:

Agree

一边倒(123)或让步(124

1.  学习艺术和音乐可以帮助更珍惜生活,体会生活中的美好。比如在对一些艺术作品或者音乐作品的解读过程中学生可以体会到艺术家的思想和他们的生活,从而增加对于生命的理解。

2.  学习艺术和音乐的过程中可以帮助开发学生的想象力创造力,同时也可以帮助他们遇到知音。在音乐和艺术中学生可以记录下自己的所思所想,同时通过对自己作品的交流也可以结交到志同道合的朋友。

3.  学生在学习艺术和音乐的过程中也可以锻炼品性。比如学习乐器的过程中需要不断的努力练习才可以提高演奏水平,这点可以锻炼孩子坚持不懈的意志品质。而这些品质对孩子的成长甚至是成功而言至关重要。

4.  让步。 当然也会有人质疑学习艺术和音乐会给孩子本已繁重的课业负担增添压力。但是这也恰恰给孩子提供了一个机会来学习如何合理的管理自己的时间。只要他们具备了这样的能力,是可以很好的协调平衡的。

 

方法二:

Disagree

一边倒(123)或者让步(124

1.  现在的孩子本身的课业压力已经相当繁重,再添加音乐和艺术课程的学习无疑更加剧了这样一种负担。另外小孩子的天性是玩耍而不是长时间坐下来学习一样新的事物,这样会导致孩子童年的不愉快。

2.  学习音乐和艺术同时会给家庭造成一定的经济压力。众所周知学习艺术和音乐会产生很大的额外开销,不管是购买乐器画具,还是去参加各类培训和比赛。因此不是所有家庭都有能力提供孩子学习音乐和艺术的,把这当做一项必修显然不够合理。

3.  音乐和艺术的学习还要求有相应的师资的加入。但是学校和社会能否提供足够的有资质的教师和学习场地显然也是一大疑问。如果教学资源是不充分的,那盲目的要求学生学习音乐和艺术是欠缺考虑的。

4.  让步。当然没有人可以否认学习音乐或者艺术会产生的好处,比如培养创造力和陶冶情操。但是这种要求要是被现实情况所允许的。与其强制的去要求孩子学习音乐和艺术,不如让他们在长大一些,能够自己判断的情况下根据自身情况去选择是否要学习。

 

Sample answer

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Younger school children (aged from five to ten) should be required to study art and music in addition to study math, language, science, and history.

 

Smart, talented, and intelligent are those words that parents and public media attach to exemplary school children. In order to reach the expectation, schools always spare no effort to further the so-called “elite education” by greatly emphasizing the importance of general courses like math, language, science, and history. However, when taking closer look, some important characteristics of children, such as innocence and creativity, are fading away as some courses like art and music are overlooked. While I have no doubt on such elite education, I advocate a well-rounded curricula structure for younger school children, including art and music.

 

First of all, learning of art and music helps to forge a sense of beauty and worship to life. It is well known that art and music are stories of lives in miniature. When we listen to the Ninth Symphony by Beethoven, we remember of all the misery through his life and the toughness coming along. When we appreciate those masterpieces during Renaissance, we think of all sacrifices and expanses our pioneers had ever paid to the exploration of the truth. Therefore, when younger children are exposed to those art and music, how can they possibly not learn from the history and cherish the life they live?

 

Moreover, the study of art and music can help shape creativity of young children, compared with courses like math and science that always have standardized answers. With pens and paper, the juvenile can draw everything in their mind, while with notes and rhythm,record their feelings and emotion. Beyond the definition of the right and the wrong, they can just let the imagination run wild. Hopefully, they can also establish friendship with those who truly understand their thoughts by the music and drawings they make.

 

To challenge the idea of paying attention to art and music though, people often refer to the problem that younger children will be occupied with too much homework and thus be squeezed out of energy. Of course the problem is unavoidable. However, considering from a different perspective, we can see it as a great opportunity for younger children to learn how to manage their individual time, how to balance study, and how to find a way to cultivate their own interests.

 

In a word, we want to foresee younger children as to have passion and imagination of life through liberal art education, rather than as nerds of all standardized courses in an elite education. While all general curricula are learned as tools to live a life, art and music can be learned as ways to embrace life.

 

字词解析

1.       fade away 消失

2.       elite education 精英教育

3.       in miniature缩影

4.       let imagination run wild 发挥想象力

5.       squeeze out 挤出

6.       liberal art education 博雅教育

7.  spare no effort to 不遗余力

 

 

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