2014年9月14日大陆地区托福阅读真题回顾 By 新东方宁波学校托福项目阅读林敏敏老师
ingenuity=cleverness merely=simply acquire random investigate inspect =exam potential replicate =copy explicit underlie distinct
讲pretend play对孩子的作用，分阶段讲。早期的孩子最开始玩什么玩具，后来就能pretend，他们自己pretend他们在吃饭等的一些简单的familiar的事（有题，选关于familiar的），后来就更复杂了，后来小孩可以理解大人pretend的一些事，并参与进来。后来他们就可以扮演了一些社会角色，比如说爸爸、妈妈、护士之类的，类似过家家，他们还知道该停止的时候就得停止（有题，排除题，选他们不知道停止）。说这些不仅对social development和intelligence有好处，还能让孩子认识cognitive the authority and rules.
TPO6 Infantile Amnesia
TPO30 Role of Play in Development
Behaviorists have studied verbal behavior since the 1920s. E.A. Esper (1920) studied associative models of language, which has evolved into the current language interventions of matrix training and recombinative generalization. Skinner (1957) created a comprehensive taxonomy of language for speakers. Baer, along with Zettle and Haynes (1989), provided a developmental analysis of rule-governed behavior for the listener and for the listener Zettle and Hayes (1989) with Don Baer providing a developmental analysis of rule-governed behavior. According to Skinner, language learning depends on environmental variables, which can be mastered by a child through imitation, practice, and selective reinforcement including automatic reinforcement.
B.F. Skinner was one of the first psychologists to take the role of imitation in verbal behavior as a serious mechanism for acquisition. He identified echoic behavior as one of his basic verbal operant, postulating that verbal behavior was learned by an infant from a verbal community. Skinner's account takes verbal behavior beyond an intra-individual process to an inter-individual process. He defined verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the mediation of others”. Noam refuted Skinner’s assumptions.
In the behavioral model, the child is prepared to contact the contingencies to "join" the listener and speaker. At the very core, verbal episodes involve the rotation of the roles as speaker and listener. These kinds of exchanges are called conversational units and have been the focus of research at Columbia's communication disorders department.
Conversational units is a measure of socialization because they consist of verbal interactions in which the exchange is reinforced by both the speaker and the listener. H.C. Chu (1998) demonstrated contextual conditions for inducing and expanding conversational units between children with autism and non-handicapped siblings in two separate experiments. The acquisition of conversational units and the expansion of verbal behavior decrease incidences of physical "aggression" in the Chu study and several other reviews suggest similar effects. The joining of the listener and speaker progresses from listener speaker rotations with others as a likely precedent for the three major components of speaker-as-own listener—say so correspondence, self-talk conversational units, and naming.
TPO7 The Geologic History of the Mediterranean
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's rocky mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the earth to the surface. It is the driving force that causes tectonic plates to move around the Earth's surface.
The Earth's surface is divided into a number of tectonic plates that are continuously being created and consumed at their opposite plate boundaries. Creation (accretion) occurs as mantle is added to the growing edges of a plate. This hot added material cools down by conduction and convection of heat. At the consumption edges of the plate, the material has thermally contracted to become dense, and it sinks under its own weight in the process of subduction at an ocean trench. This subducted material sinks to some depth in the Earth's interior where it is prohibited from sinking further. The subducted oceanic crust triggers volcanism.
因为猩猩没法发音，很多人就开始对教猩猩的手语比较感兴趣了（有题，问为什么开始对教猩猩感兴趣）；第二段讲了一个实验，说让猩猩待在一群人中间，这群人不说话，都是用手语表达，还做了一些特别的帮助，来教猩猩手语（排除题，问哪个方法没用到）。猩猩学了很多词，还能同时说2个词了，2个词是有结构的而不是ramdom（词汇题），最后猩猩还会创新，说了一个water bird（有题，问water bird说明了什么）。第三段讲第二段的这个实验发表在科学杂志上面了，刺激了很多人研究猩猩的手语，结果这些热情因为一个实验给停止了（有题，问对这种研究的热情怎么停止了）。讲这个实验表面,猩猩学了很多词，也能用2个词来表达。但是小孩的词汇量达到一定程度就可以说一些句子，但是猩猩的词汇量到了125，还是不能表达复杂的句子,而且猩猩只能说2个词，如果说3、4个词，他就只能重复，比如说Nim（一个名字） eat，you eat，它这么说只是为了强调，而不是为了表达。第四段讲得一个film，一个trainer教猩猩，猩猩更多的是重复trainer的话。最后一段比较了一下孩子和猩猩，说孩子可以说很多变化的句子。
TPO9 Reflection in Teaching
TPO13 Methods of Studying Infant Perception
Chimpanzees make tools and use them to acquire foods and for social displays; they have sophisticated hunting strategies requiring cooperation, influence and rank; they are status conscious, manipulative and capable of deception; they can learn to use symbols and understand aspects of human language including some relational syntax, concepts of number and numerical sequence; and they are capable of spontaneous planning for a future state or event.
Chimps communicate in a manner similar to human nonverbal communication, using vocalizations, hand gestures, and facial expressions. Research into the chimpanzee brain has revealed chimp communication activates an area of the chimp brain in the same position as Broca's area, a language center in the human brain.
There is some debate as to whether chimpanzees have the ability to express hierarchical ideas in language. Studies have found that chimps are capable of learning a limited set of sign language symbols, which they can use to communicate with human trainers. However, it is clear that there are distinct limits to the complexity of knowledge structures with which chimps are capable of dealing. The sentences that they can express are limited to specific simple noun-verb sequences and are not capable of the indefinite expansion of complexity characteristic of humans.
2014年9月14日大陆地区托福听力真题回顾 By 新东方宁波学校托福项目听力李俊毅老师
小姑娘的教授找她讨论一些问题(有题)，关于她们组的research paper。教授然后问另外两个人，姑娘说他们在图书馆做Assignment（有题）。教授于是说你们research paper的topic(关于study habit有题)我很喜欢，就是方法我觉得不太好。小姑娘询问原因。教授说，你们要知道有个现象，就是在别人意识到你们要做什么的时候，他们下意识会做得更好。然后教授说你们在library做这个research,你就要大家知道。小姑娘就说尽管我们不打算把它当做一个secret（有题）有什么问题吗？教授说就是这个了。说以前在一个plant(有题)里做research, 然后调查生产效益和light亮度的关系，他们发现light亮，生产效率也有的提高，暗也有的提高，姑娘说这个不make sense。教授说这个就是现象，不想学生从头再来，但需要改变一下方法，再来协商。
-TPO部分对应参考 （论文科研 TPO12-C1/TPO22-C2）
American inventor Thomas Edison began making short motion pictures at the turn of the century. In 1903, a movie called "The Great Train Robbery" was the first to tell a complete story. In 1915, D. W. Griffith made a long, serious movie called "Birth of a Nation."
By the early 1920s, many American towns had a movie theater. Most Americans went to see the movies at least once a week. The movie industry became a big business. People might not know the names of government officials. But they knew the names of every leading actor and actress.
Movies were fun. They provided a change from the day-to-day troubles of life. They also were an important social force.
Young Americans tried to copy what they saw in the movies. And they dreamed about far-away places and a different kind of life. A young farm boy could imagine himself as romantic hero Douglas Fairbanks or comedian Charlie Chaplin. A young city girl could imagine herself as the beautiful and brave Mary Pickford.
Rich families and poor families saw the same movies. Their children shared the same wish to be like the movie stars. In this way, the son of a banker and the son of a factory worker had much in common. The same was true for people from different parts of the country.
生态学，首先学生提问说我对sea A不理解。Professor解释说你知道建房子吧，房子要有个foundation，这个sea A就像foundation一样的(有题)。是起一个key的作用,然后就解释。Sea A吃sea B, sea B吃clep, 然后sea A保护了clep，后来人们大量捕食。大概是捕食A导致了clep数量的减少，不过sea A并没有extinct，现在又有上升的趋势。然后教授说另一种作用就是改变生活的环境，比如说beaver。它对树有损伤，然后制造出有水的环境。和African elephant是吃wooden grass, 但它这个体积庞大的动物把tree都压倒了。然后这个生态环境就变成了grass了。值得一提的是它自己得不到好处的，虽然它是关键，它只是帮别的动物创造生态环境（有题）。
Beavers are famously busy, and they turn their talents to reengineering the landscape as few other animals can. When sites are available, beavers burrow in the banks of rivers and lakes. But they also transform less suitable habitats by building dams. Felling and gnawing trees with their strong teeth and powerful jaws, they create massive log, branch, and mud structures to block streams and turn fields and forests into the large ponds that beavers love.
Domelike beaver homes, called lodges, are also constructed of branches and mud. They are often strategically located in the middle of ponds and can only be reached by underwater entrances. These dwellings are home to extended families of monogamous parents, young kits, and the yearlings born the previous spring.
Beavers are among the largest of rodents. They are herbivores and prefer to eat leaves, bark, twigs, roots, and aquatic plants.
These large rodents move with an ungainly waddle on land but are graceful in the water, where they use their large, webbed rear feet like swimming fins, and their paddle-shaped tails like rudders. These attributes allow beavers to swim at speeds of up to five miles (eight kilometers) an hour. They can remain underwater for 15 minutes without surfacing, and have a set of transparent eyelids that function much like goggles. Their fur is naturally oily and waterproof.
There are two species of beavers, which are found in the forests of North America, Europe, andAsia. These animals are active all winter, swimming and foraging in their ponds even when a layer of ice covers the surface.
说地球上水的形成。一开始有个理论，开头的时候地球上的温度超级高。然后说地球超级干。接下里就是comet和asteroid,一个是冰的，一个都是rock的。然后说月球上有环形山，就是这个造成的，和地球差不多（有题）。然后说scientist研究Greenland发现他们那边有iri，更像comet上的。但现在科学家又有新发现，发现离太阳比较近的在Jupiter和Mars之间的地带，出现了一种icy asteroid, 经鉴定和地球上的ocean成分很像。然后就有教授cast doubt说那个时候地球还是很热，所以不是这个理论，有专家反驳说那个时候地球已经冷下来了。
-TPO部分对应参考 （天文学类 TPO5-L2/TPO22-L2/TPO24-L4）
The recent research instead concentrated on the possible sources of water in rocks from the lunar highlands. These samples make up some of the oldest moon rocks available for study and are thought to have directly formed from the moon magma ocean. Jessica Barnes, a PhD student in planetary and space sciences at the Open University in theUnited Kingdom, led the research.
By studying the isotopic composition of water present in these rocks, we can examine the history of water in the Earth-moon system closer to the time when these two planetary bodies formed.
The rocks are of volcanic origin and contain apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral that has the same volatile elements as those found in many igneous rocks on Earth. Volatile elements, which include hydrogen, chlorine and sulfur, are the elements that most easily escape from magma.
The presence of these volatile elements in magmatic rocks tells scientists about the composition of the crust, mantle and atmosphere of a planet or moon. And because apatite is hydrogen rich, it suggests that water was present on the moon in the past.
Researchers have found apatite in various types of lunar rocks. And while previous studies have analyzed this mineral in younger lunar rocks and pyroclastic glasses, these samples did not provide ideal material for understanding the original volatile composition of the moon soon after its formation.
-TPO部分对应参考 （文学戏剧类 TPO5-L4/TPO6-L3/TPO13-L3）
William Shakespeare (baptized 26 April 1564 – died 23 April 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's preeminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon”. His surviving works, including some collaboration, consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, who bore him three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the sixteenth century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. In 1623, two of his former theatrical colleagues published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognized as Shakespeare’s. Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the nineteenth century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare's genius, and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called "Mariolatry". In the twentieth century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.
Talk about a friend of yours and how you met this person.
A special friend of mine is Tony. We’ve known each other since elementary school. Tony and I have lots in common. For example, we have the same taste in music and art. Both of us like listening to Metal music and taking photos. This means we have more activities to do together and things to talk about. Second, I feel free to talk to him about anything because he can keep secrets and give me the suggestion that I need. He would never blame or punish me for the mistakes I make just like my mother do. For example, he is the only person I ‘d talk to when I fail an important test.
Some students like to take notes in class, others prefer to mainly listen to the teacher. Which di you prefer? Explain why.
I prefer to take lots of notes in class for the following reasons. First, taking notes helps me concentrate. It’s easier to keep up with the lecture when I’m constantly taking notes. I’ll get distracted if I don’t. Especially when I didn’t get a sound night sleep from the night before. Taking notes keeps me from nodding off. Second, notes are helpful when I review class materials. As I don’t have a great memory, I forget things all the time. Class note is a record of what’s important. It reminds me of the things that might be in test.
The student in the letter proposes the university to add a kitchen in student’s dormitory.
Reason 1: Students can learn cooking skills.
Reason 2: Students can benefit from it.
The man disagrees with the proposal for two reasons:
First, The kitchen will take up too much space for socialization. The spare room should be reserved for TVs and stuff to entertain friends.
Second, students are always busy to study recipes, not to mention cook for themselves, it is more convenient for them to have meals in the school dining hall.
Term in reading: False Signaling is when predators mimic prey reproductive signals to deceive and capture prey.
Lecture: The professor takes spider& moth as an example. Female moths usually release a certain kind of chemical smell to attract and lead male moths for mating, but the spiders can send out a similar smell to deceive the male moth to come over and capture it in sticky web.
Problem: The girl who live on the forth floor has to carry her bike up and down and she’s tired of it, so she wants to find a place to store her bike at night.
Solution 1: To lock the bike at the outside bike stand, but the bike can get rusty.
Solution 2: To place it at her friend’s place who live on the first floor, but she has to wake her up every morning, which may disturb her friend as their schedules are not the same.
Advocacy and direct service are two ways nonprofit organization helps to solve community social problems.
Example 1: Advocacy means the organization convince and motivate people to contribute, like they publish articles or advertisements in newspaper to attract donations and motivate the government to construct more playgrounds for children.
Example 2: Direct service means they contribute directly. For example they collect money and design the playgrounds all by themselves instead of asking for help from others.
综合写作= 140322CN 讨论美国实行agricultural subsidies的利弊
Topic 议题：advantages and disadvantages of American agricultural subsidies
These benefits may not exist
Help stabilize price of crops and supply during food shortage.
The lowered price is due to government subsidies. However, these subsidies can only be made by taxation of consumers. Therefore, consumers actually pay for the stabilized price.
Help developing countries to solve the problem of starvation.
Agricultural subsidies will lower the price of foods and once imported by developing countries, these foods will outcompete the local ones. Therefore, it is not beneficial to the development of local agriculture.
Help ensure job security in agricultural sector.
Agricultural subsidies can only be used for particular foods like crops, and it will help increase the production of crops. Once the production is enlarged, which means highly mechanized, no more labor force will be needed. And companies that plant other agricultural products will be pushed to bankruptcy, which deepens the problem of unemployment.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Younger school children (aged from five to ten) should be required to study art and music in addition to study math, language, science, and history.
4. 让步。 当然也会有人质疑学习艺术和音乐会给孩子本已繁重的课业负担增添压力。但是这也恰恰给孩子提供了一个机会来学习如何合理的管理自己的时间。只要他们具备了这样的能力，是可以很好的协调平衡的。
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Younger school children (aged from five to ten) should be required to study art and music in addition to study math, language, science, and history.
Smart, talented, and intelligent are those words that parents and public media attach to exemplary school children. In order to reach the expectation, schools always spare no effort to further the so-called “elite education” by greatly emphasizing the importance of general courses like math, language, science, and history. However, when taking closer look, some important characteristics of children, such as innocence and creativity, are fading away as some courses like art and music are overlooked. While I have no doubt on such elite education, I advocate a well-rounded curricula structure for younger school children, including art and music.
First of all, learning of art and music helps to forge a sense of beauty and worship to life. It is well known that art and music are stories of lives in miniature. When we listen to the Ninth Symphony by Beethoven, we remember of all the misery through his life and the toughness coming along. When we appreciate those masterpieces during Renaissance, we think of all sacrifices and expanses our pioneers had ever paid to the exploration of the truth. Therefore, when younger children are exposed to those art and music, how can they possibly not learn from the history and cherish the life they live?
Moreover, the study of art and music can help shape creativity of young children, compared with courses like math and science that always have standardized answers. With pens and paper, the juvenile can draw everything in their mind, while with notes and rhythm，record their feelings and emotion. Beyond the definition of the right and the wrong, they can just let the imagination run wild. Hopefully, they can also establish friendship with those who truly understand their thoughts by the music and drawings they make.
To challenge the idea of paying attention to art and music though, people often refer to the problem that younger children will be occupied with too much homework and thus be squeezed out of energy. Of course the problem is unavoidable. However, considering from a different perspective, we can see it as a great opportunity for younger children to learn how to manage their individual time, how to balance study, and how to find a way to cultivate their own interests.
In a word, we want to foresee younger children as to have passion and imagination of life through liberal art education, rather than as nerds of all standardized courses in an elite education. While all general curricula are learned as tools to live a life, art and music can be learned as ways to embrace life.
1. fade away 消失
2. elite education 精英教育
3. in miniature缩影
4. let imagination run wild 发挥想象力
5. squeeze out 挤出
6. liberal art education 博雅教育
7. spare no effort to 不遗余力