2014年9月21日托福考试考情回顾

发表于:2014-09-21 22:31 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
今天大陆地区的托福考试是加场,所以ETS采用了今年3月1日大陆地区的旧题。亲们今天考得如何?能否顺利得和托福君分手呢?想不想看看史上醉详细的托福听力和阅读真题解析,想不想参考下口语阶梯思路及作文满分范文?只有你想不到没有我们做不到,宁波新东方名师倾情奉献最新鲜的考情速递~~考生们快看过来吧!


2014921日大陆地区托福考情分析

by宁波新东方托福研究院

 


 

今天921日的托福考试是临时加场考试,所以不出所料,这场考试ETS采用了旧题,也就是今年31日大陆地区的托福考题。想知道自己考得怎么样吗?跟宁波新东方托福研究院的名师们一起来回顾下今天的托福考题吧!

 

2014921日大陆地区托福阅读真题回顾                           By 新东方宁波学校托福项目阅读朱佳佳老师

 

这次考试与2014年3月1日考过的三篇文章完全一致,整体难度不大。三篇文章题材较常见,分别是地质类,生态类和艺术类。TPO中也有相关相似练习篇章。


三篇词汇题:

Sequence= series

Tangible= physical

 

Converted= changed

 

Approximating= estimating

 

Subsequent= later

 

Henceforth= from this time on

 

Obliged= forced

 

Launched= started

 

Ensure= guarantee

 

Pronouncement= statement

 

Counterpart= equivalent

 

Rekindled= renewed

 

flexible=bendable

 

 

 

 

 


第一篇:

题材划分:地质研究类文章

 

主要内容:文章主要讲了在19世纪科学家用不同的方法去测量地球的年龄(geological Earth time),主要讲了3种不同方法。第一种方法是通过自然过程中fossil record中动物进化的速度来推断,该方法的不足之处体现在fossil remains不连续。第二种方法是通过sedimentary厚度来测定,比如某一时间段底层的厚度以及整体底层的厚度,该方法的不足之处在于底层有侵蚀(erosion)。第三种方法是通过海水的盐度,海水的量来测定。该方法成功的测定了地球年龄,与跟许多地质学家的观点一样,但也同样存在问题,因为海水每年的循环和海底盐分的沉积测量不准确。

解析:该篇文章框架非常清晰,学员要重点把握文章结构,理解文中提到的三个不同的测量方法,以及该方法存在的问题。

相似TPO练习推荐:

TPO 07:The Geologic History of The Mediterranean

 

相关知识背景:

The geological history of Earth follows the major events in Earth's past based on the geologic time scale, a system of chronological measurement based on the study of the planet's rock layers (stratigraphy). Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago by accretion from the solar nebula, a disk-shaped mass of dust and gas left over from the formation of the Sun, which also created the rest of the Solar System.

Earth was initially molten due to extreme volcanism  and frequent collisions with other bodies. Eventually, the outer layer of the planet cooled to form a solid crust when water began accumulating in the atmosphere. The Moon formed soon afterwards, possibly as the result of a Mars-sized object with about 10% of the Earth's mass impacting the planet in a glancing blow. Some of this object's mass merged with the Earth, significantly altering its internal composition, and a portion was ejected into space. Some of the material survived to form an orbiting moon. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, augmented by ice delivered from comets, produced the oceans.

As the surface continually reshaped itself over hundreds of millions of years, continents formed and broke apart. They migrated across the surface, occasionally combining to form a supercontinent. Roughly750 million years ago, the earliest-known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia, 600 to 540 million years ago, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart180 million years ago.

The present pattern of ice ages began about 40 million years ago, then intensified at the end of thePliocene. The polar regions have since undergone repeated cycles of glaciation and thaw, repeating every 40,000–100,000 years. The last glacial period of the current ice age ended about 10,000 years ago.

 

                               

第二篇

题材划分:生态类文章

 

主要内容:

文章主要讲了威尼斯的水污染问题,政府禁止染坊(dyer)等乱倾倒污水,这些人一开始很排斥,后来选择倒在城外。

后来人们开始用储水器(cistern)来收集雨水,但是这个事情是非常复杂的(physically and socially complex),后来又发展了城市供水系统。

13-15世纪又另建了一些新的储水器(cistern),中间暂停了一部分,因为爆发了瘟疫。当cistern跟不上供水需求的时候,人们开始用船去最近的河流打水过来卖。政府支持这个做法,但因为资金问题而放弃。

解析:典型的问题解决类文章,先提出一个生态问题,然后提出不同的解决方法。学生需要掌握该类文章的框架结构,重点是把握相关的解决方法。

相似TPO练习推荐:

TPO14 Maya Water Problems

 

相关知识背景:

Venice is a city in northeastern Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges.[2] It is located in the marshy Venetian Lagoon which stretches along the shoreline, between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Venice is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks.[2] The city in its entirety is listed as a World Heritage Site, along with its lagoon.[2]

Venice is the capital of the Veneto region. In 2009, there were 270,098 people residing in Venice's comune (the population estimate of 272,000 inhabitants includes the population of the whole Comune of Venezia; around 60,000[3]in the historic city of Venice (Centro storico); 176,000 in Terraferma (the Mainland), mostly in the large frazioni(roughly equivalent to "parishes" or "wards" in other countries) of Mestre and Marghera; 31,000 live on other islands in the lagoon). Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area(PATREVE), with a total population of 1,600,000. PATREVE is only a statistical metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy.

The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC.[4][5] The city historically was the capital of the Republic of Venice. Venice has been known as the "La Dominante", "Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", and "City of Canals". Luigi Barzini described it in The New York Times as "undoubtedly the most beautiful city built by man".[6]Venice has also been described by the Times Online as being one of Europe's most romantic cities.[7]

The Republic of Venice was a major maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history.[8] It is also known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period. Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.[9]

 

 

第三篇

题材划分:艺术类文章

 

主要内容:

该篇文章主要讲解动画(motion picture)的起源。 M拍摄到了24张马的照片来证明某个时刻马的四脚是离地的。之后爱迪生发明了动画照相机(motion camera),一开始失败了,因为不知道如何影片快速的通过照相机,后来通过打孔的方法解决了。

之后,爱迪生发明了留声机,投币看短电影(short films),只能允许一个人看到屏幕。如果一大群人一起看就卖不出这么多的机器了。欧洲人改良了爱迪生的机器,他被迫无奈发明了vistascope.

    一开始电影的题材很简单,关于赛马、拳击之类的,后来有人用它来讲故事也很不错。一些人也开始创办电影公司。

解析:该篇文章按照动画发展的过程来讲述,典型的现象解释类文章。学生可以根据不同阶段的相关发明来把握文章结构。

相似TPO练习推荐:

TPO 22The Birth of Photography


相关知识背景:

The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater. In the peepshow format, a film was viewed through a small opening in a machine that was created for that purpose. Thomas Edison's peepshow device, the Kinetoscope, was introduced to the public in 1894. It was designed for use in Kinetoscope parlors, or arcades, which contained only a few individual machines and permitted only one customer to view a short, 50-foot film at any one time. The first Kinetoscope parlors contained five machines. For the price of 25 cents (or 5 cents per machine), customers moved from machine to machine to watch five different films (or, in the case of famous prizefights, successive rounds of a single fight).

These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a similar way. Edison was more interested in the sale of Kinetoscopes (for roughly $1,000 apiece) to these parlors than in the films that would be run in them (which cost approximately $10 to $15 each). He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from him instead of several.

Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. About a year after the opening of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumiere, Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the assistance of Edison's former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices. These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience.

With the advent of projection in 1895-1896, motion pictures became the ultimate form of mass consumption. Previously, large audiences had viewed spectacles at the theater, where vaudeville, popular dramas, musical and minstrel shows, classical plays, lectures, and slide-and-lantern shows had been presented to several hundred spectators at a time. But the movies differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which depended on either live performance or (in the case of the slide-and-lantern shows) the active involvement of a master of ceremonies who assembled the final program.



                                  

                                              





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


2014921日大陆地区托福听力真题回顾                           By 新东方宁波学校托福项目听力李俊毅老师


本次考试听力难度依然不小,整套考试重复的是台湾地区9月6日的加场考试内容,也是大陆地区3月1日的考试内容。所以童鞋们要想尽快摆托,还是踏踏实实积累自己听懂的能力,不断提升对各学科学术内容的熟悉和了解,才能面对逐渐变难的听力考题。

                                  

Conversation 1

学生觉得生物的那个她不明白,如果是在实验室做的sleep research有可能不符合natural environment的情况。然后教授就说他也做过这样的调查,有那种小的器材可以查脑电波和video可以locate the animal。然后还说学生有兴趣可以去做这样的research,学校有提供,学生说不知道。然后老师说这个项目的Publicity不够好。


-TPO部分对应参考 (论文科研 TPO13-C1/TPO17-C1)

-TPO对应词汇



Lecture 1

研究哪种Energy是最efficient。要所有的energy都转化成heat才最efficient。Fire虽然有亮光但是会产生很多的热。然后就是incandescent light,也会产生很多热。换灯泡就知道了(有题),然后就是F的light,heat比较小但是有Mercury toxin不太好(有题)。然后就是ocean的那种,现在虽然不普遍以后会有很大的发展。


-TPO部分对应参考 (环境科学TPO12-L4/TPO23-L2)

-参考背景


In physics, heating is transfer of energy, from a hotter body to a colder one, other than by work or transfer of matter. It occurs spontaneously whenever a suitable physical pathway exists between the bodies. The pathway can be direct, as in conduction and radiation, or indirect, as in convective circulation.Heating is a dissipative process. Heat is not a state function of a system.

Kinetic theory explains transfers of energy as heat as macroscopic manifestations of the motions and interactions of microscopic constituents such as molecules and photons.

The quantity of energy transferred as heat is a scalar expressed in an energy unit such as the joule (J) (SI), with a sign that is customarily positive when a transfer adds to the energy of a system. It can be measured by calorimetry, or determined by calculations based on other quantities, relying on the first law of thermodynamics. In calorimetry, latent heat changes a system's state without temperature change, while sensible heat changes its temperature, leaving some other state variable(s) unchanged; the terms latent and sensible are correlative.

Heat is a central concept in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and is also important in chemistry, engineering, and other disciplines.

Lecture 2

讲的是海蛇喝水。不像其他的marine creatures,海蛇通过喝fresh water能保持hydrated。海蛇在舌头底下合成水,但是并不efficient。它会在rainfall之后喝fresh water。在降雨之后,一些有很多海蛇分布的区域,会形成water lenses。开头雨水不会和海水mix,但在这些calm places, mix的时间是最长的。接下来是个实验,在缺水的情况下不喝水,有fresh water的时候立即摄入水。


-TPO部分对应参考 (动物类TPO10-L1/TPO23-L3)

-参考背景


Sea snakes are generally reluctant to bite, and are usually considered to be mild-tempered, although there is variation among species and individuals.[12] Some species, such as Pelamis platurus, which feed by simply gulping down their prey, are more likely to bite when provoked because they seem to use their venom more for defense. Others, such as Laticauda, use their venom for prey immobilization; these snakes are often handled without concern by local fishermen, who unravel and toss them back into the water barehanded when the snakes become entangled in fishing nets. Species reported as much more aggressive include Aipysurus laevis, Astrotia stokesii, Enhydrina schistosa , Enhydrina zweifeli and Hydrophis ornatus.

Sea snakes appear to be active both day and night. In the morning, and sometimes late in the afternoon, they can be seen at the surface basking in the sunlight, and they will dive when disturbed. They have been reported swimming at depths of over 90 m (300 ft), and can remain submerged for as long as a few hours, possibly depending on temperature and degree of activity.

Sea snakes have been sighted in huge numbers. For example, in 1932, a steamer in the Strait of Malacca, off the coast of Malaysia, reported sighting "millions" of Astrotia stokesii, a relative of Pelamis; these reportedly formed a line of snakes 3 m (9.8 ft) wide and 100 km (62 mi) long. The cause of this phenomenon is unknown, although it likely has to do with reproduction. They can sometimes be seen swimming in schools of several dozen, and many dead specimens have been found on beaches after typhoons.

Conversation 2

女的要搬出学校住,想提前把钱拿来租房。


-TPO部分对应参考 (其他话题 TPO5-C1/TPO8-C1)

-TPO对应词汇



Lecture 3

一个formation里面有fossil,想确定一群人去Europe的时间。


-TPO部分对应参考 (考古学人类学TPO23-L1/TPO22-L1)

-参考背景


Fossils (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past. The totality of fossils, both discovered and undiscovered, and their placement in fossiliferous (fossil-containing) rock formations and sedimentary layers (strata) is known as the fossil record.

The study of fossils across geological time, how they were formed, and the evolutionary relationships between taxa (phylogeny) are some of the most important functions of the science of paleontology. Such a preserved specimen is called a "fossil" if it is older than some minimum age, most often the arbitrary date of 10,000 years. Hence, fossils range in age from the youngest at the start of the Holocene Epoch to the oldest from the Archaean Eon, up to 3.48 billion years old. The observation that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led early geologists to recognize a geological timescale in the 19th century. The development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed geologists to determine the numerical or "absolute" age of the various strata and thereby the included fossils.

Lecture 4

关于Jane Austen的讲座。主要说她的经历对后来创作的影响,谈到她按照自己的方式进行批判,而同时代的另一个作家就不同了。


-TPO部分对应参考 (文学类TPO6-L3/TPO13-L3)

-参考背景

 

Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. Her realism, biting irony and social commentary have gained her historical importance among scholars and critics.

Austen lived her entire life as part of a close-knit family located on the lower fringes of the English landed gentry. She was educated primarily by her father and older brothers as well as through her own reading. The steadfast support of her family was critical to her development as a professional writer. From her teenage years into her thirties she experimented with various literary forms, including an epistolary novel which she then abandoned, wrote and extensively revised three major novels and began a fourth. From 1811 until 1816, with the release of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1815), she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, both published posthumously in 1818, and began a third, which was eventually titled Sanditon, but died before completing it.

Austen's works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century realism. Her plots, though fundamentally comic, highlight the dependence of women on marriage to secure social standing and economic security. Her works, though usually popular, were first published anonymously and brought her little personal fame and only a few positive reviews during her lifetime, but the publication in 1869 of her nephew's A Memoir of Jane Austen introduced her to a wider public, and by the 1940s she had become widely accepted in academia as a great English writer. The second half of the 20th century saw a proliferation of Austen scholarship and the emergence of a Janeite fan culture.

加试部分还是经典加试,第二Section

学生丢ID卡+神经元细胞+英国浪漫主义诗人






 


2014921日大陆地区托福口语真题回顾

By新东方宁波学校托福项目口语组仇凯晨老师

Task1 - Describe an interesting type of clothing in your country.

这个题目难,但并不新,很多同学在刷题的时候往往觉得它奇怪就给忽略了。构思时,不应太过纠结interesting或in your country: interesting与否完全可以是personal的,取决于你描述时的positive light; 至于后者,应避免把前提想得过大或复杂。

话题/思路提点如下:

1. Chinese school uniforms 校服题在黄金80范围中,理应练过。

Details: ①appearance: white, simple, maybe chic and stylish...etc. And all students wear them on campus to participate all kinds of activities ②meaning: show the collective image of students, make them focused, disciplined and united...etc.

2. Costumes

最切题的说,推荐谈论少数民族服饰或传统戏曲服饰。但这个话题选择对学生的词汇量要求较高。也可以谈论你经历过的某个special occasion(party, ceremony, competition...)里采用的服饰,作为事例。但记得点一下such occasions are common in China.



Task2 - Do you agree or disagree that before taking a career, it’s better for students to learn more about this field through part-time jobs or internships

常见话题,谈论实习经验对职业生涯有否帮助。思路提点如下:

Agree:

①knowledge learned from class is limited and unpractical, students need practice beforehand②while working students can expand their social networks

Disagree:

①most part-time jobs students can get before graduation are labor-related, not that meaningful②We’re having bad economic times, experiences don’t really guarantee anything. Students need to be prepared for a more diploma-oriented job market.



Task3

学校决定建造一个new art history building. 女生认为这是个好主意。1st, 目前的教室都太小了,所以报课人数有限。新的教室可以容纳更多课程及参报学生,比如她的Chinese history class. 2nd,教授经常在屏幕上展示照片或油画,但现有的屏幕太小了,学生都看不清图片上的细节。新的楼房可以改善相关设施。



Task4

Topic: Tree Communication. 树木会释放一些化学物质进行自我防御及互相沟通。教授讲了个实验,有2组柳树(willow tree),第1组有虫害,第2组没有。过了一段时间以后,研究者发现第1组柳树中的虫灾没有恶化,因为树木产生了一种化学物质进行自我防御;且第2组没有感染虫害的柳树也释放了这种化学物质,这是为了警告其他的柳树小心虫害。



Task5

女生需要留校读summer school但是course以及dorm的费用都太高了。她有两个生财/省钱方式:1st, 她可以在图书馆打工,但是这会对她的课程和作业时间造成很大影响。2nd,她可以自己不去餐厅,自己做饭省钱,但是她厨艺比较糟糕。



Task6

教授谈论了2 stages in advertising, 分别针对primary demands以及secondary demands. 当一个产品比较独特的时候,比如一个公司刚开始卖手机,广告会强调potential customers对它的基本需求,例如方便性、与人的必要沟通。然而,当类似产品出现、市场上产生竞争时,手机广告会偏向顾客的secondary demands强调它独特的例如camera function等,从而使顾客选择该产品。


 

 

2014921日大陆地区托福写作真题回顾         

            By 新东方宁波学校托福项目写作余丹阳老师

                              

综合写作= 20120609CN

            Topic 议题the theories of plants folding leaves at night

 

Reading

Listening

Sub-point 1

分论点1

Protection against cold(losing heat)

The plants have no source of internal heating, so whether folding or unfolding suffer the same freezing damage.

Sub-point2

分论点2

Protection against fungal spores infection, block out water so insects have meanings of fungal infection.

Even though the plants are folding, they can not block out all the water and fungal spores only require a few water.

Sub-point 3

分论点3

Eliminate night time light, in order to track up to the regular time to produce flowers

Some plants in densely shaded area where no light is reaching still fold their leaves, therefore some other reasons may explain.

 

 

 

 

 

独立写作=2012.6.9CN2014.3.1CN

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

It is often not a good thing to move to a new town or country because of the loss of old friends.

这次考试的题目在今年的31号已经出现,说明ETS的出题规律也在不断的进行改变。今天的这道题目也是比较容易想出三个分论点,如果想不出可以采取让步的方法会比较好解。

Disagree

让步(123)或者单边(234

1.承认老朋友是比较熟悉自己的人,对自己的生活是很重要的。搬到一个新的城市会和老朋友的联系渐渐变少,共同的话题也减少,久而久之老朋友可能就成了一般的点头之交,对于一般人来说肯定是一个很大的损失。

2.但是如果因为怕失去老朋友而不去新地方发展,是很不明智的,因为搬家并不意味着会失去老朋友,现在科技那么发达,有很多方式可以和老朋友联系,比如打电话,视频聊天(video chat),微信(wechat)等。

3.另外,去新地方发展有利于开阔眼界,结交更多的朋友。

4.搬到一个新的城市不是一件好事情并不是因为失去老朋友。这两者之间没有必然的关系。搬到一个新城市不是一件好事情可能是因为语言不通,水土不服(unacclimatized)或者饮食不习惯(be not accustomed to…)

 

Sample answer

Friends, who provide joy and solutions, are important to everyone. And staying in one place seems to preserve a friendship from being perished caused by geographic segregation. Therefore,some oppose that people change their location to an unfamiliar city at the expense of losing old friends. I, however, disagree.

 

Firstly, there is no causal relationship between movement to a new city and loss of old friends. On the one hand, modern communication technologies, like Wechat, Skype and QQ, remove the physical barrier within a global range and make it possible for anyone to stay in touch. Take my friends, Della who studies in the US, as an example. Our friendship, instead of being estranged, becomes even closer with the assistance of Facebook and Twitter. On the other hand, thanks to the advanced transportation technologies, long distance is nothing but a several-hour-journey. Airplanes and high-speed rail largely diminish the time people waste on the tedious path, by which long distance will no longer separate people from bosom friends. In fact, true friendship will not easily disappear due to the less time spending together. Just as an ancient Chinese philosopher once put it, a hedge between keeps friendship green.

 

Secondly, one cannot shut him/herself away from any possible opportunities in a different city. For one thing, people are forced to learn from the hopeless life. It is no long an era of changing to die but the opposite. New graduates in metropolitan area, for instance, are facing unprecedentedly fierce competition of job market recent years. Rather than suffering from unemployment, a graduate may be hunted by local enterprises in a medium-sized city. Then why would him/her refuse such great chance? For another, one can be benefited from an enlarged social circle involving new friends in a new environment. Imagine a person who is, more often than not, in his own worlds, hanging out with several fixed friends. How could he reach the outside world and achieve great success?

 

Thirdly, social mobility is accused of somewhat negative influence on daily life though, it is not because of the loss of old friends. Other external factors should be taken into account. Most people are unable to adapt to the unfamiliar climate, different cultural customs or unsuitable diet. My sister, as a compelling example, lived in plain since her childhood. To our surprise, she chose a university located highland regardless of her parental persuasion. Being unacclimatized, she suffered from severe diarrhea and headache. It takes her roughly three months to totally fit the altitude stress. In this case, it seems clear that moving to a new environment being an uncomfortable thing has nothing to do with the loss of friends.

 

All in all, moving to a new place has little effect on the loss of old friends. Actually, a new environment win people a lot, and the risk of losing friends may only be an implausible excuse for whom are reluctant to change. (490 words)

 

 

 

 


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