美国大学排名差异

发表于:2014-11-21 16:30 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

With the recent release of 2015 US News Global Universities Rankings, many prospective study abroad students and their family members are left baffled with a quandary: Why does the Global Universities Rankings drastically differ from the National Universities Rankings, especially if it is produced by the same organization?

Below are some key points, analyzing the two discussed ranking systems. Through this, I hope that readers would become better educated on the Ranking systems and can better employ them in their own university selection process.

·         U.S. News & World Report (U.S. News) is an American media company that publishes consumer advice, rankings and analysis. Founded in 1933, it is best known today for its influential Best Colleges and Best Hospitals rankings. The rankings are for advisory purposes only, and have never been endorsed by the U.S. Government.

·         U.S. News has recently released two rankings – 2015 Best Colleges on 9 September 2014 and 2015 Best Global Universities on 27 October 2014.

·         Many have wondered the discrepancy between the two ranking systems.

·         QUESTION: WHY IS VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY RANKED 14TH ON THE NATIONAL LIST BUT RANKED 89TH GLOBALLY???

·         See below for other examples:

 

 

2015 Best Colleges Ranking

2015 Best Global Universities Ranking

Princeton University

1

13

Harvard University

2

1

Washington St. Louis

14

41

Vanderbilt University

16

89

UC Berkeley

20

3

University of Washington

48

14

 

·         ANSWER: ALTHOUGH BOTH RANKING LISTS WERE PRODUCED BY THE SAME COMPANY, THEY WERE DEVELOPED USING DIFFERENT CRITERIA.

2015 Best Colleges Ranking 美国综合大学排名

 

2015 Best Global Universities Ranking 全球大学排名

 

Undergraduate Academic Reputation

本科学术声誉

·         Peer assessment (University Faculty and 2,152 High School counselors): 66%%

·         同行评价(大学教师和2152名高中辅导员): 66%%

·         Peer Assessment (400 College counselors): 33%

·         同行评价(400 名大学辅导员): 33%

 

22.5%

Global Research Reputation

世界研究声誉

12.5%

Retention存留率

·         Students graduate within 6 years: 80%

·         学生6年内毕业比例:80%

·         Freshmen continuing to pursue degree following year: 20%

·         大一新生继续学业的比例:20%

22.5%

Regional Research Reputation

区域研究声誉

 

 

 

12.5%

Faculty Resources师资源

·         Class Size (proportion of classes less than 20 students): 30%

·         课堂规模(少于20人的课堂的比例) 30%

·         Class Size (proportion of classes with 50 students or more): 10%

·         课堂规模(50人以上的课堂的比例) 10%

·         Faculty Salary: 35%

·         师薪资:35%

·         Professors with highest degree in their fields 15%

·         拥有所在领域最高学位的教授数量:15%

·         Student-faculty ration: 5%

·         学生/师比例:5%

·         Proportion of Faculty fulltime 5%

·         职教师的比例:5%

20%

Publications

出版物

12.5%

Student Selectivity学生录取

·         SAT/ACT score: 65%

·         SAT/ACT分数:65%

·         Proportion of enrolled students top 10 of high school: 25%

·         入学学生中来自Top10高中的比例:25%

·         Acceptance rate 10%

·         录取率:10%

12.5%

Normalized Citation Impact

标准化引用影响

10%

Financial Resources财政资源

·         $ per student: 100%

·         每个学生的收费:100%

10%

Total Citations

被引用总数

10%

Graduation Rate毕业率

·         Actual rate vs US New predicted rate (100%)

·         实际毕业率与US New预计毕业率的比例(100%

7.5%

Number of Highly Citied Papers

被高度引用的论文数目

12.5%

Alumni Giving Rate校友捐赠比例

·         Alumni $ per student

·         平均到每个学生的校友捐

5%

Percentage of Highly Cited Papers

被高度引用的论文比例

10%

International Collaboration

际合作

10%

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded

授予的博士学位数量

5%

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded per academic staff member

平均到每个教学人员的授予博士学位数量

5%

 

·         A close analysis of the criteria above demonstrates that these ranking systems are based on very different assumptions. As we must remember, U.S. News is a Consumer Advisory publication, the information provided must fit the targeted audience, providing them with the most relevant information.

·         2015 Best Colleges Ranking strives for a more 'qualitative' analysis of American universities, i.e., considering factors which will allow students to have a great university experience. This means small classes, greater attention from professors or resources available to them. As a result, factors such as: student to faculty ratio and money spent per student are key.

·         2015 Best Colleges Ranking highly considers resources as a means to determine a university ranking. The idea is that additional resources will allow a student to have greater access to better and more diverse instructors, laboratory equipment, scholarships, internships or extra-curricular activities. As a result, alumni funding, university endowment and professor salary are major factors in determining a university ranking.

·         2015 Best Colleges Ranking considers the importance of an academically rigorous environment. The more rigorous and challenging, the more students will be able to learn from their peers. Therefore, universities with students with higher SAT/ACT scores and have lower rates, rank higher on the rankings.

·         Given these considerations, private universities in America traditionally outperform their public counterparts. As public universities are funded by their State Governments, they have a mandate to educate the public – admitting more students within their individual states.

·         In fact, all California students achieving top 9% of their high school class are guaranteed admission to at least 1 University of California (UC)  through the Eligibility in the Local Contest (ELC) program – regardless of SAT score. Additionally, students enrolled in California Community Colleges with qualifying GPAs at participating UCs, are ensured admission through the Transfer Admission Guaranteed (TAG) program.

·         As a result, public universities like the UCs tend to have a large in-state student population who have benefitted from admission policies. It is not uncommon to see admitted in-state students with lower SATs and GPAs than out-of-state or international students. As a result, UC class sizes are generally bigger and their funding per student tend to be lower than top private universities.

·         Private universities are not mandated by State Government as they have their own funding sources for their endowment. Their admission policies are not affected by the need to educate the public. As a result, private universities tend to have higher admitted SAT averages, smaller class sizes and higher salaries for faculty members.

  • 2015 Best Global Universities Ranking strives for a more 'quantitative' analysis of universities, assessing criteria that makes the university ‘excellent’ in the international arena. Rather than assessing a student’s university attending experience, it looks objectively at how a university outperforms another.
  • 2015 Best Global Universities Ranking is extremely results oriented. For a university, this means academic outputs: the number of publications, citations from other academics, number of Ph.Ds. awarded and the rate of Ph.Ds. awarded.
  • Universities are knowledge sharing, so the 2015 Best Global Universities Ranking closely looks at the university’s partnerships and collaborations.
  • As public universities are mandated to educate the general public, they tend to be strong in many majors, allowing them to best fit the diverse needs of the student body. For example, UC Berkeley, UCLA, University of Michigan, University of Virginia and University of Wisconsin Madison have a plethora of Top 25 majors, ranging from English Literature, to Business or Engineering. Top private universities while holding many top majors, are more specialized, with most having only a few Top 10 majors. 
  • Private universities have less students so must expend their resources more efficiently, specializing in particular majors rather than investing across diverse fields. As a result, they tend to score much lower on the 2015 Best Global Universities Ranking because of their decreased academic outputs: number of publications, citations from other academics, number of Ph.Ds awarded and the rate.

Which University is the ‘Best Fit’ for me?

  • When researching the perfect university, students must consider a range of factors. Rankings is one way to quickly assess the quality of the university, but it’s wiser to look more closely.
  • If a student is interested in small class size, private universities may be a better option. If the student has diverse interests and may not want to be limited in their academics, a public university may be a better fit. Also, just because a university is Top 10 on the National or International Ranking doesn’t mean that it’s the right school. Academic Majors is an important consideration. If the student wishes to study a specialized major, such as Education, Wisconsin Madison and University of Michigan are great choices. No Ivy League university have ever ranked Top 10 for Education major.
  • Keep in mind that both of these Rankings, as well as all other rankings, are for advisory only and are Unofficial. They change annually, with some increasing as much as 10 ranking positions, for example: Boston University (BU) moving from 51 to 41 between 2013 and 2014. Did BU become that much of a better school overnight? Perhaps, but highly unlikely.
  • Therefore, assess every ranking list with a grain of salt. Look closer to why specific universities are excellent for the student rather than recognizing the university as a number.
  • After all, remember the old adage: ‘don’t judge a book by the cover.’ You would never judge a person by his or her name so why should you ever attempt to measure a university by its ranking.

 

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