2014.03.04【英译中】Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus (one)

一只筱蝶 (一只筱蝶) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-04 20:54 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

  Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting  from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia  of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of  different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels.

糖尿病是一组以高血糖为特点的代谢性疾病,是由于胰岛素分泌和/或作用缺陷引起。长期慢性高血糖可引起器官和组织的功能减退,尤其是眼,肾,神经,心脏和血管等组织的功能改变


  Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These
range from autoimmune destruction of the pancreaticb-cells with consequent

insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The  basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes  is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from  inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or  more points in the complex pathways of hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion  and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia.

糖尿病的发展涉及一些发病机制。包括胰腺β细胞功能缺陷导致的抗胰岛素作用。对靶组织的胰岛作用异常是糖尿病患者碳水化合物,脂肪和蛋白质代谢异常的基础。胰岛素作用缺乏导致胰岛素分泌不足和/或靶组织在激素作用通路上一点活多点反应减低。同一患者往往合并胰岛素受损和胰岛素分泌障碍,无法判断引起高血糖的病因是哪一个或者是共同作用的结果


   Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss,
sometimes with polyphagia, and blurred vision. Impairment of growth and
susceptibility to certain infections may also accompany chronic hyperglycemia.
Acute, life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia

with ketoacidosis or the nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome.

 典型的高血糖症状为多饮,多尿,体重减轻,有时伴有多食和视物模糊。影响生长,感染性疾病发生的风险增加,伴发慢性高血糖。高血糖酮症酸中毒或高渗性非酮症综合征是急性的,危及生命的糖尿病急症

Long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with potential loss of
vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot  ulcers, amputations, and Charcot joints; and autonomic neuropathy causing
gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cardiovascular symptoms and sexual
dysfunction. Patients with diabetes have an increased incidence of atherosclerotic
cardiovascular, peripheral arterial, and cerebrovascular disease. Hypertension and

abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism are often found in people with diabetes.

糖尿病的长期并发症包括视网膜病变;肾病导致肾功能衰竭,周围神经病患者足部溃疡,截肢,夏科关节,以及自主神经病变引起胃肠道,泌尿生殖系统和心血管症状和性功能障碍。糖尿病患者动脉粥样硬化,心血管,外周血管,脑血管疾病的发生率增加。糖尿病患者通常伴有高血压和脂蛋白代谢异常。

The vast majority of cases of diabetes fall into two broad etiopathogenetic categories (discussed in greater detail below). In one category, type 1 diabetes, the cause is an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion. Individuals at increased risk of developing this type of diabetes can often be identified by serological evidence of an autoimmune pathologic process occurring in the pancreatic islets and by genetic markers. In the other, much more prevalent category, type 2 diabetes, the cause is a combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response. In the latter category, a degree of hyperglycemia sufficient to cause pathologic and functional changes in various target tissues, but without  clinical symptoms, may be present for a long period of time before diabetes is  detected. During this asymptomatic period, it is possible to demonstrate an  abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism by measurement of plasma glucose in the  fasting state or after a challenge with an oral glucose load or by A1C.

 依据病因,绝大多数的糖尿病分为两个类别(在下面详细讨论)。即1型糖尿病,病因为胰岛素绝对缺乏。发展为该型糖尿病的个体往往具有遗传易感性,可以通过胰岛在自身免疫病理过程的血清学证据和遗传标记来识别。另一种类别,更为普遍的是2型糖尿病,病因是胰岛素抵抗和胰岛素分泌缺陷。在后一种类别中,一定程度的高血糖足以引起各个靶组织病理学和功能的变化,但没有临床症状,这在糖尿病确诊前可长期存在。在此无症状期间,血浆葡萄糖检测将出现代谢异常,一般检测他们的空腹血糖或葡萄糖负荷或A1C.

分类: 英语

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