2014.03.06【英译中】The Guardian:Should Children Take Antipsychotic Drugs? ☆第417期☆儿童应该服用抗精神病药物吗?

ydyinglluk (Erin) 译坛新秀
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发表于:2014-03-06 13:59 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

原文摘自:http://bulo.hujiang.com/menu/14249/item/885266/


Should Children Take Antipsychotic Drugs? 

 

Modern antipsychotic drugs are increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents diagnosed with a broad variety of ailments.

现代抗精神性药物被广泛用于治疗许多关于儿童和成人的疾病中。

The drugs help to alleviate symptoms in some disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but in others their effectiveness is questionable.

这些药物能够减轻一些心理障碍性疾病例如精神分裂症和双向情感障碍等,但是在其他的疾病治疗过程中,这些药物是否有效却存在这争议。

Yet off-label prescribing is on the rise, especially in children receiving public assistance and Medicaid.

然而,这类处方药的数量却在增加,尤其存在于儿童接受政府援助或接受医疗补助计划中。

Psychotic disorders typically arise in adulthood and affect only a small proportion of children and adolescents.

心理障碍方面的疾病在成人中的增长更为普遍,而患这类疾病的儿童和青少年只占了其中一小部分。

Off-label prescriptions, however, most often target aggressive and disruptive behaviors associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

然而,这些未被临床试验认可的药物却常常用于治疗与注意障碍性多动症(ADHD) 相联系的攻击和破坏性行为的过程中。

“What's really concerning now is that a lot of this prescription is occurring in the face of emerging evidence that there are significant adverse effects that may be worse in youth than in adults,” says David Rubin, a general pediatrician and co-director of PolicyLab at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

费城儿童医院的PolicyLab主任及儿科医师,大卫·罗宾这样说道:“我们真正担心的是,已经有越来越多证据显示,与大人相比这些处方药物的使用将对儿童造成的副作用将更为严重。”

Here we review the evidence for the effectiveness of antipsychotic medications commonly prescribed for five childhood conditions. But do the benefits outweigh the risks?

在这里我们回顾了通常用于治疗五种儿童心理障碍疾病的抗精神性药物的疗效。但是使用这些药物真的利大于弊吗?

 

Schizophrenia 精神分裂症

Bipolar Disorder 双向情感障碍

Autism 孤独症

ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorders多动症和破坏性行为障碍

OCD and Tourette's Syndrome强迫症和妥瑞氏综合症

 

Are the Side Effects Worth It? 抗精神药物果真利大于弊吗?
Modern antipsychotics, called “atypical” to distinguish them from the first generation of antipsychotic drugs, were initially promoted as a safer alternative to their forerunners.

在现代抗精神药物中,我们使用“非典型”一词将它们同第一代抗精神药物区分开来,因为它们起初,是出于作为一种比第一代药物更为安全的替代性药物为目的,而被开发出来的。

Yet it has become clear that atypical antipsychotics are associated with a host of serious side effects, such as weight gain, diabetes, high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease.

然而,这些非典型药物也渐渐被证明有可能导致一系列严重的副作用,比如体重的增加,糖尿病,高血脂和心脑血管疾病等。

In a study of 116 youths with early-onset schizophrenia, children taking risperidone gained eight pounds on average after taking the medication for eight weeks, whereas children taking olanzapine gained 13 pounds on average—prompting a safety review board to terminate the olanzapine arm of the trial early.

在一项针对116名患有早发型精神分裂症的儿童进行的研究中,接受利培酮治疗的儿童在使用该药物起的八周后体重平均增加的八磅,而使用奥氮平的孩子平均每人的体重增加了13磅,这一研究也促使了对奥氮平的安全审查委员会的产生,以尽早终止该药物的使用。

Children taking antipsychotics are also three times more likely to develop type 2-diabetes than children not taking the medication, according to a 2013 study by researchers atVanderbiltUniversity.

根据范德堡大学在2013年的一项研究中显示,使用抗精神药物的儿童在患2型糖尿病的可能性,是不使用该药物的儿童的三倍。

In addition, risk of tardive dyskinesia—a neurological disorder resulting in compulsive movement—accompanies both classes of antipsychotics.

此外,抗精神性药物也伴随着引起迟发性运动障碍(一种神经性障碍将导致强迫性运动)的风险。

 A 2008 study found that it occurs in about 4 percent of patients taking atypical antipsychotics, compared with 5.5 percent for typical antipsychotics.

 2008年的一项研究发现在使用抗精神药物的病人约有4%的人患此疾病,而在使用典型抗精神药物中,这一比率达到了5.5%。

Although the risk is higher with the older medications, an important caveat is that tardive dyskinesia usually occurs only after someone has taken the medication for years—longer than most clinical trials on atypical antipsychotics to date.

尽管旧型药物的得病几率要更高一些,但是我们也应当注意到十分重要的一点:在使用旧型药物中,迟发性运动障碍症常常发生在人们使用了很多年的此类药物之后;而在对非典型抗精神药物的临床试验中,后者引起该疾病的时间明显比旧型药物要短。

 

antipsychotic :安定药

ailment:疾病;不安

schizophrenia精神分裂症(a psychotic disorder characterized by loss of contact with the environment, by noticeable deterioration in the level of functioning in everyday life, and by disintegration of personality expressed as disorder of feeling, thought (as delusions), perception (as hallucinations), and behavior )

bipolar disorder:双相情感障碍(any of several psychological disorders of mood characterized usually by alternating episodes of depression and mania)

ADHD注意力不集中症

pediatrician儿科医生

autism自闭症(a variable developmental disorder that appears by age three and is characterized by impairment of the ability to form normal social relationships, by impairment of the ability to communicate with others, and by stereotyped behavior patterns)

cardiovascular心血管的(of, relating to, or involving the heart and blood vessels )

risperidone利培酮

olanzapine奥氮平

tardive dyskinesia:迟发型运动障碍


谢谢观看。。撒花。。

你们有没有一种有了汉语就不想看英语的冲动呢。。反正我是有的。。。不管译文好不好都不想看英文了的冲动。。。。


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