2014.03.07【英译中】007《宪法》共有多少条修正案?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-07 15:25 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
7. How many amendments does the  Constitution have?
Answer: 27
7. 《宪法》有多少条修正案?27条
  开国元勋们在1787年写宪法的时候,他们希望政府能和美国一同成长发展。尽管他们写的每一条看上去都挺有建设性,他们清楚地知道人们今后肯定会对《宪法》进行修改。元老们希望政府能够运作很长一段时间,他们保证政府能够跟上国家发展的方式就是允许宪法修正案的存在。修正这个词来自修改,意味着改变,修正案就意味着改变《宪法》。由于《宪法》一直在变和重新解释,人们就叫它“活文件”。
  《宪法修正案》的产生是有很多原因的,否决最高法院的决定、改变《宪法》中的一些条款,或者改变社会上的一些事情。例如,第19条修正案几乎改变了半个美国,它赋予女人投票表决权,1920年之前女人是没有这项权力的。这条修正案让社会改变了对女人的看法。这也导致了后面一系列的改革,让女人获得更多平等的权力。
  一项修正案提议必须经过参议院和众议院投票表决。一旦通过,这项修正案还要获得3/4国民的支持,然后才能被写入宪法。《宪法》规定另一种修改方式就是再次召开宪法大会,但是这种方式至今未被使用过。美国总统是不参加修正案决议的,但可以向公众表明自己的立场。
  目前,一共有27条宪法修正案。前十条被总结为《人权法案》,1791年就被收录进宪法了。最近的一条修正案,即第27条修正案是1992年通过的。
Explanation:
  When the founding fathers(or the man who made the U.S. government)  wrote the Constitution in 1787, they wanted a government that would grow and change as America grew and changed. Everything they had writte seemed like a good idea, but they knew that people might need or want to change the part of the Constitution later. The Founding Fathers wanted their new government to last a long time and allowing constitutional amendments was their way to make sure that the government could change to meet the changing country's needs.The word amendent comes from the verb to amend, which means to change something, so an amendment is change to the Constitution. Because the Constitution is always changing and being reinterpreted(or read again and  understood differently), many people call it "a living document".
  Amendments are added to the Constitution for many reasons to overrule(or cancle or undo) a decision made by the supreme cout(the highest court in the United Stateds) to change something that was written in the constitution or to change something in society. For example, the 19th amendment changed something very important for half of the country. It gave woman the right to vote in 1920, before then, women were not allowed to vote. This amendment force the society to change the way it thought about women and it eventually led to other changes and more equal rights for women in the United States.
  A proposed amendment(or one that has been suggested but not yet approved) must be approved by both the Senate and the House of Repesatitives. Once it is approved by the Senate and the House of Repasatitives, the amendment must be approved by 3/4(or 75%) of the states before it can be added to the Constitution.The Constitution says that another way to make amendments is to have another constitutional convention(or meeting) of the state's repesatities, but this has never been done. The U.S. presidents do not participate in the passage(or approval) of an amendment. But they can tell the public what they think about it. 

  Currently, there are 27 amendments to the Constitution. The first ten are collectively(or as a group) known as the Bill of Rights. The amendments included in the bill of rights were added long ago in 1791. The most recent amendment, amendment No.27 was ratified(or approved) in 1992. 


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