2014.03.07【英译中】010 什么叫宗教自由?(翻得头昏脑胀,给我点个赞吧~)

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-07 16:42 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
10.  What is freedom of religion? 
Answer:   
You can practice any religion, or not practice a religion. 
10. 什么叫《宗教自由》?
你可以信仰任何宗教,或者选择不信仰。
  许多早期美国人信仰的宗教和政府的不一样。由于宗教问题而受到不公平的待遇,很多美国人就逃离了自己原来的国家。当他们可以制定自己的政府法律时,他们意识到宗教自由是非常重要的。宗教自由有时也叫“政教分离”,意思就是宗教和政府是互相独立的,两者不能相连地太近。举例,如果国会制定了一项法案要求美国人去教堂、犹太教堂、清真寺、寺庙等人们带着宗教目的集会的地方,这是违宪的。政府公开为一种宗教代言,这就意味着政府不能公开表示哪个宗教是最好的。这两种行为都违反了宗教自由权。
  美国是世界上最早的几个承认宗教自由的国家之一。如今,这在美国已经根深蒂固。75%的美国人是基督徒,也有信仰犹太教、伊斯兰教、佛教及印度教,当然也有些人是没有宗教信仰的。由于宗教自由的观念已经普及大部分地区,被大部分人所接受,宗教多样性在这个国家就很正常了。写《宪法》并且对《人权法案》中这条修正案投赞成票的都是些富有的白人新教徒。他们没有理由知道很多年以后他们创造的宗教自由导致了美国的宗教多样化。
  宗教自由一直是个有争议的话题。即使近几年,都有一些法律问题被提出来,宗教是否应该在学校和公众场合存在。不是每个人都赞成政教分离,法院也在不断地根据他们的理解诠释来修改这条修正案。


Explanation:   
    Many of the earliest Americans followed a religion that was different from the one practiced (or believed in) by the people in government.  These early Americans fled (or ran away from) their original countries because they were treated unfairly because of their religious beliefs. When it was time for them to write their own governing document (or laws to create a country) they felt that freedom of religion was very important.  Freedom of religion is also sometimes called separation of church and state.  Separation of church and state means that religion (also called the “church”) and government (also called the “state”) are separate and independent and should not work too closely together.  For example, it is unconstitutional (or against the law) for Congress to make a law that says Americans have to attend (or go to) a church, synagogue, mosque, temple, or any other place where people meet for religious purposes.  The government also cannot endorse one religious group over another, meaning that the government cannot tell Americans which religion it thinks is the best.  Either of these things would violate (or go against) Americans’ freedom of religion. 
 
    The United States was one of the first countries in the world to have freedom of religion.  Today, this is one of the most important freedoms in the United States.  About seventy-five percent of Americans are Christians, but other religions such as Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism are also practiced by many people in the U.S., while some people don’t follow any religion at all.  Because religious freedom is widespread and accepted in most areas and by most people in the country, religious diversity (or the existence of many different religions in the same place at the same time) has become normal in this country. The men who wrote the Constitution and passed the amendments in the Bill of Rights were mostly white, wealthy, Protestant Christians.  They would have had no way of knowing how much religious diversity the U.S. would have many, many years later as a result of their creating freedom of religion.   
 

    Freedom of religion has always been a controversial topic (or a topic that is often argued over because people have many different opinions).  Even in recent years, there have been many legal questions about whether religion belongs in school and in public places.  Not everyone agrees on how religion and government should be separated, and the courts continue to change how they interpret (or understand) freedom of religion. 


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