2014.03.09【中翻英】焦虑成为社会普遍心态(2)

fallin2u (sally)
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发表于:2014-03-09 10:36 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

2014.03.09【英翻中】焦虑成为社会普遍心态(1)的后续~


 

事实上,受就业焦虑困扰的何止刘继军这一代人。

 

In fact, not only the generation of Liu is puzzled by the anxiety of employment.

 

在计划经济时期,城镇职工个人总是生活在一定的“单位”中,单位发放工资,提供住房、医疗、养老等保障,赋予人们基本的“安全感”。在转型期,社会结构剧烈变革,原先由单位提供的“保护壳”被打碎了,新的“安全阀”又没有完全建立起来,人们内心里埋下了焦虑的“种子”,面对就业压力和失业风险,变得焦躁不安。

 

During the period of planned economy, individual workers in cities and towns were living in certain units. The unit paid off salaries and provided guarantees like housing, medical service, and pension insurance, hence endow the people with basic sense of security. And in the reform period, the social structure reformed intensely, and the safeguard that was provided by the units was smashed, yet the new pledge was not fully made. The seed of anxiety is planted into people’s heart, and they became anxious facing the pressure to obtain employment and the risk to lose a job.

 

从1998至2000年,国有企业共产生下岗职工2100多万人,波及数千万家庭,且主要集中在煤炭、纺织、机械、军工等困难行业。其造成的影响一直延续到本世纪初,有些问题至今仍在消化。

 

From 1998 to 2000, there were more than 21 million people who were laid off from state-owned enterprises mainly in the tough industries of coal, textile, machinery, and military, which affected millions of families. And the influence continues until the beginning of 21 century, while some problems are still under assimilation.

 

与此同时,1994年起,我国逐步改变大学毕业生分配制度,由国家统分向市场化就业转变,提倡“自主择业”、“灵活就业”。进入新世纪,各地大学继续扩招,毕业生人数猛增,“就业难”从下岗职工向大学生群体迅速蔓延,就业焦虑从“4050”人群向“80后”、“90后”人群迅速扩散。

 

Meanwhile, since 1994, our country changed the job assignment on graduation after university gradually, and it transformed from all-state- allocation[1] to market-based employment, which advocates “finding employment on one’s own” and “finding employment flexibly”. Entering the new century, the number of graduates is rising sharply as enrolment in universities all over the country continues to increase. Low employment spreads from laid-offs to university student groups, and the anxiety of employment pervades from the 40s and 50s to post 80s and post 90s rapidly.

 

市场经济充满了诱惑,也充满了风险。目前,我国仍处在社会主义初级阶段,市场经济体制正在完善,尚缺乏牢靠的“社会安全网”。比如,失业救助、医疗保险、社会养老等基本保障制度还未真正健全。在一定程度上讲,“灵活就业”也是“高风险就业”的代名词。一旦失去了“单位”的保护,人们难免出现无所适从的心理状态,难免产生无法回避的焦虑。

 

There are plenty of allure and plenty of risk in a market-directed economy. At present, our country is still at the elementary stage of socialism, when the market-directed economy system is still under improvement and perfection, and is still lack of stable “social security networking”. For example, the basic insurance system such as unemployment benefits and medical insurance is not perfect yet. To a certain extent, “finding employment flexibly” is a pronoun for “highly risky employment”. Once people lose the protection from units, they are hard to refrain from feeling lost, and therefore unavoidable anxiety emerges.

 

身份焦虑——

Anxiety of Identity--

 

在同一座城市中,因户口不同造成用工壁垒、社保差异、待遇悬殊……事实上形成了新的人群隔离

 

In the same city, new insulations[2] among multitudes are actually formed because of employment barriers, social security, and differentiation of treatment brought by hukou[3].

 

工作了5年,正准备结婚的王志强突然陷入了极大的焦虑:他和女友虽然都在广州上班,却都没有广州户口!

 

Having been working for 5 years, Zhiqiang Wang, who is preparing to get married, suddenly fell into tremendous anxiety: although his girlfriend and him are working in Guangzhou, both of them don’t have Guangzhou’s hukou!

 

没有户口,就没法在当地领结婚证;没有户口,就难以申请经适房、廉租房;没有户口,将来孩子上学更是难题……

 

There’s no way to get married in the local without hukou; and it’s hard to apply for affordable housing and low-cost housing without hukou; moreover, without hukou their children’s education will be a difficult problem in the future…

 

上大学、读研究生、上班……王志强在这里生活了12年。猛回头,他才发现:这座繁华的城市,原本就和他无关!

 

Studied for bachelor, master, and went to work… Wang has lived here for 12 years. Looked back upon and he realised that: this prosperous city has no relation with him from the very first.

 

户口一度是身份的直接标签:没有城镇户口,就没有粮票、布票、油票,就无法在城市生活。改革开放30余年,户口已不再承载粮油功能,但是户口的附加值依然存在;在北京等一些大城市,没有户口,生活并不轻松:

 

Hukou had once been a direct tag of identity: food stamps, clothing stamps and oil stamps[4] would not be provided without hukou, and thus there’s no way to make a living in the city. Reforming and opening up for over 30 years, hukou no longer bears the function of obtaining food and oil, but the added value of hukou still exists; it’s hard to make a living in huge cities like Beijing without hukou:

 

住房——高房价下,很多地方出台了住房保障措施,但是,外地户口人员多被排除在外。而保障房与商品房的差别至少在数十万、百万元以上。再加上住房、汽车限购政策的出台,如果没有当地户口,兜里揣着钱,也难以买房、买车。

 

Housing—Local authorities published housing ensuring policies as the housing price remains high, but most people with non-native hukou were not included. But the gap between the prices of low-incoming housing and commercial housing is more than up to 100 thousands and millions Yuan. In addition, with the car-purchasing limitation’s carrying out, although you have enough money, it’s hard to purchase housing and cars without local hukou.

 

教育——尽管不少城市对非户籍人口子女义务教育政策有所松动,但是户口仍承载着较大的教育功能。比如,在北京没有户口就难以享受优质教育资源。不用说小学、中学,单清华、北大等在京的招生指标就只能让外地人羡慕。

 

Education—although quite a lot of cities loosened compulsory education policies regarding non-native people’s children, hukou still bears identical function in education. For instance, it’s difficult to enjoy education resource with high quality without local hukou in Beijing. Not to speak of primary schools and middle schools, the university enrolment rate of Tsinghua University and Peking University towards Beijing hukou alone is just so envied by the non-native people.

 

社保——按照规定,用人单位要为员工办理养老保险、医疗保险。尽管养老保险关系异地转接制度已经建立,但由于社保待遇存在地域差异,不同户籍的社保待遇并没有实现均等化。

 

Social security—according to relevant regulations, employers are ought to conduct pension insurance and medical insurance for their employees. Although the pension insurance switching system of relocation has been established, as the social security treatment is still differentiated from place to place, the social security treatment of different residence registrations has not been equal.

 

改革开放打破了旧的城乡结构,人口快速向中心城市、经济发达地区流动。表面看,原来的城乡分割、户籍分割不明显了,然而,由于缺乏完整的体制保障,改变城乡对立、户籍限制的任务依然艰巨。在同一座城市中,因户口不同造成用工壁垒、社保差异、待遇悬殊……由此带来的“人群排斥”,已经给社会留下深创巨痛,并在事实上形成了新的人群“隔离”。

 

The reform and opening up broke up the old urban and rural structure, and the population flows to central cities and developed areas rapidly. On the surface, the previous segmentation of urban and rural and division of residence registration is not obvious anymore; nevertheless, in the same city, exclusion between social groups occurred because of employment barriers, social security, and differentiation of treatment brought by hukou leaves the society with severe wounds and sharp pains, and new insulations among multitudes are formed as a matter of fact.



[1] “国家统分”stands for 国家统一分配. During the planned economy period, graduates from university were all assigned to certain jobs according to government's decision.

[2] “隔离” is mainly used in the medical field to mean detention, and here it’s the extension usage to mean insulation.

[3] “户口” system is used in mainland China as its household registration system; it is originated and only applied to China mainland so I translated it into Pinyin.


[4] During the planned economy period, people used “food stamps, clothing stamps and oil stamps” to obtain food, clothing,  oil, and such necessities.


我的其他翻译作品~欢迎来戳:

2014.03.01【日译英】こたつ

2014.03.01【日译英】「Yes」は必ずしも「Yes」ではない(1)

2014.03.01【日译英】「Yes」は必ずしも「Yes」ではない(2)

2014.03.01【日译英】「Yes」は必ずしも「Yes」ではない(3)

2014.03.04【日译中】视力检查


2014.03.08【英译中】Japanese Culture and Social Structure








最后编辑于:2014-03-11 14:01
分类: 英语
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