2014.03.09【英译中】011 美国实行哪种经济体制?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-09 15:56 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
11.  What is the economic system in the United States? 
Answer:  
•  Capitalist economy 
•  Market economy 
1.美国的经济体系是什么?
  资本经济
  市场经济

  如果你开始经营一项生意,开一家餐馆或者一间服装店,在美国是一个好选择。这是因为美国实行市场经济,欢迎个体户,并给他们提供公平地机会在政府不干预的情况西安做买卖。美国政府不能为商品定价,并且决定它的产量。相对的,价格是由供求关系决定的,也就是说市场上有多少存货以及多少人有购买意愿。那我们又如何得知这种供求关系呢?有两个关键因素:一是利润,另一个就是个人利益,一个人所有的决定都是出于个人利益,他并不企图增进共公福利。
  亚当斯密是美国资本主义之父。他将他的思想都写入《国富论》中。他认为,资本主义体系由一只看不见的手引导,政府不需要出面干预经济,因为个体自身会追求最大的价值。
  要理解这个理论,我们不妨想象一下你家附近有家店一粒糖卖20美元。你觉得太贵了,但这是唯一一个可以买糖果的地方,如果你想要糖果,你不得不付出20美元。然而,如果街的另一头有家店以1美元的价格出售同种糖果,出于你的个人利益,你肯定会买那个便宜的。那家贵的店就不得不降低糖果的售价和那家便宜的店竞争,否则他家的糖果就卖不出去也就没有利润可言了。那家售价低的店就为大家争取了利益最大化,因为大家可以买更多的糖果了。这就是那只看不出的手平衡美国市场经济的基本原理。
 
Explanation:  
    If you want to start a business, maybe by opening a restaurant or a clothing store, the United States is a good place to do it.  This is because the U.S. has a capitalist, or market, economy, making it acceptable and fairly easy for private entities (or individuals and businesses that are not owned by the government) to buy, sell, and trade things for money without government interference (or involvement by the government). In the U.S., the government doesn’t decide how much things should cost or how much of something should be produced (or made). Instead, prices and production are decided based on a system called supply and demand, which refers to how much of a thing exists and how many people want to have that thing. How do we know how much supply and demand there is for a product?  There are two important factors. The first is profit (or money a business gets by selling something), and the second is self-interest, which is when a person makes decisions based on what is best for him or herself, without paying attention to what is best for other people. 
 
    A man named Adam Smith is considered the father of American capitalism. He wrote about his ideas in a famous book called The Wealth of Nations. He believed that a capitalist system is run by an invisible hand. The invisible hand is the idea that there is no need for government interference in the economy because the self-interest of individuals will serve the greater good (or the maximum benefits for everyone in society).  
 

    To understand this idea, imagine that a store near your home sells a piece of candy for $20. You think that this price is too high, but it is the only place to buy candy, so if you want candy, you have to pay the $20. However, if the store across the street begins selling the same piece of candy for $1, you will act in your own self-interest and buy the less expensive candy. The more expensive store will be forced to lower its candy prices to compete with the cheaper store, or else it won’t sell any candy and won’t make any profit. In this situation, everyone involved has acted out of self-interest, and the final result is a lower price for candy.  The lower prices will serve the greater good of everyone in the neighborhood, because everyone can buy more candy. This is the basic principle (or explanation) behind the invisible hand and the United States’ market economy. 

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最后编辑于:2014-03-09 15:59
分类: 英语
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