2014.03.10【英译中】总统选举多长时间一次?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-10 21:05 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
26. We elect a President for how many years?  
Answer:   
Four (4) 
26. 我们多久选一次总统?4年
  许多来北美建立美国的人都来自有国王的国家。那些国家的国王手上的权力过于集中,并且很清楚自己将一生为王,所以滥用职权。这就是为什么当开国元勋创立新政府时,会那么排斥国王,他们绝不想要一个像国王的一样的总统。他们规定一届总统只有4年任期,非终身制,这意味着美国总统4年就要重新选举一次。
  那能重选几次呢?这在最初的《宪法》上并没有规定。美国第一任总统,乔治华盛顿,连任了2届,总共8年,然后他宣布不想再竞选了。自从他开了先例,很长一段时间,总统任期都没有超过2届。尤利塞斯·格兰特总统和西奥多·罗斯福总统都曾尝试连任第三届,但都以失败告终。1940年,富兰克林·罗斯福成为美国历史上第一个连任3届的总统。事实上,他已经赢了第四届的竞选,总共16年,但在第四任期刚开始没多久就死在了自己的办公室里。
  他一死,国会为了避免总统拥有太多的权力而规定其最多任期为2年,于是他们修订了第22条修正案,其中规定没有任何一个总统可以连任超过2届。国会在1947年提出了这条修正案,1951年正式通过全民投票。
  
Explanation:  
  Many of the people who came to North America and later created the U.S. government had come from countries that had kings. Many of those kings had too much power and they abused (or used in a bad way) their power, because they knew that they would be king for their entire life. That’s why, when it was time to create the new U.S. government, our Founding Fathers didn’t want to have any more kings, or even a president who acted like a king. They didn’t want anyone to be able to become president for the rest of his or her life, so they made a term of four years, meaning that a U.S. president can be president for four years and then has to be elected again. 
 
  But how many times can a president be re-elected? The original (or first and unchanged) Constitution didn’t say. Our first president, George Washington, was president for two terms, or a total of eight years. Then he decided that he didn’t want to run for office (or try to be elected) again. When he did this, he set a precedent, or a way of doing things that other people followed. For many years, no other president ran for more than two terms. Presidents Ulysses Grant and Theodore Roosevelt tried to run for a third term, but they were unsuccessful. In 1940, however, President Franklin Roosevelt became the first president to be elected for a third term. Actually, he even won a fourth term and could have served for 16 years total, but he died in office early in his fourth term. 
 

  After he died, Congress (or the lawmaking part of the U.S. government) decided that it didn’t want anyone to be able to be president for more than two terms because it would give the president too much power. They created what would become the 22nd Constitutional Amendment (or a change or addition to the constitution), which states that no one can be elected to the office (or position) of president more than twice (or two times). The Amendment was created by Congress in 1947, and ratified (or approved) by the states in 1951. 


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