2014.03.14【英译中】014 什么能够制约政府分支的权力?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-14 21:03 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
14.  What stops one branch of government from becoming too powerful? 
Answer:   
•  Checks and balances 
•  Separation of powers 
14. 什么能够制约政府分支的权力?
三权分立
权力分割
  建立美国政府的人想要找到一种方式制约政府分支。他们建立了三权分立的制度,亦称权力分割,并写入了《宪法》。
  我们可以在美国的立法进程中找到一个三权分立的例子。国会是国家的立法机构,负责制定并通过法律。但如果国会写了一部违宪的法律,诸如美国再也没有言论自由了,如果这种法律被通过了,总统作为行政分支就可以否决它。另一种途径就是通过最高法院,即国家的司法系统,就可以用司法权宣布这条法律违宪。在这个例子中,你可以清楚地看到如果一个分支做了违宪的事情,其他两个分支都有权制约它。
  另一个例子就发生在最高法院院长任命的过程中。被提名的法官先由总统指定,再通过国会多数表决通过,这意味着50%的国会议员对这名法官投了赞成票,然后这名法官就要终身为最高法院服务了。作为一名最高法院的法官,他/她做决定的唯一依据就是《宪法》,无需例会国会和总统。这样,法官就可以推翻由国会通过的法律,或者指责总统的行为违法,而不用担心饭碗不保了。
  
Explanation:   
   The people who created the U.S. government wanted a way to make sure that no one branch (or part) of the government becomes too powerful. They built a system of checks and balances, also known as a separation of powers, into the Constitution.  
 
   We can find one example of checks and balances in the United States’ process for making laws. Congress, or the legislative branch, is responsible for making and passing (or approving) laws. But what if Congress writes and passes a law that is unconstitutional (or that doesn’t follow the Constitution), such as a law that says that Americans no longer have freedom of speech? If a law like this were passed, the President as part of the executive branch could veto (or cancel) the law. Another way to stop this law would be for the Supreme Court, part of the judicial branch, to say that it is against the Constitution, using its power of judicial review (or the power to overturn or undo laws passed by Congress). In this example, you can see that when one branch tries to do something that does not follow the Constitution, one or both of the other branches can stop that from happening. 
 

   Another good example of the separation of powers is the process by which a person becomes a Supreme Court justice (or a judge on the Supreme Court, the most powerful court in the U.S.). A prospective (or potential or possible) Justice is first appointed (or chosen) by the president. Congress must then approve of this appointment by getting a majority vote, which means that more than 50% of Congress must vote “yes” for the prospective judge. After receiving approval from Congress, the justice serves a life term (or for the rest of his or her life) on the Supreme Court.  As a Supreme Court judge, he or she can make decisions based on what the Constitution says, without worrying about what Congress or the President think. This way, the Justice can help overturn a law passed by Congress or decide that one of the president’s actions does not follow the law, without worrying about losing his or her job!


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