2013.03.19【英译中】016 联邦法律由谁制定?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-19 15:49 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
16. Who makes federal laws?  
Answer:   
•  Congress  
•  Senate and House (of Representatives)  
•  (U.S. or national) legislature 
16. 联邦法律由谁制定?
国会
参议院和众议院
美国立法机构


  制定联邦法律的程序师极其复杂的,需要花费大量时间。这很合理,因为这意味着法律不会随随便便被改变。只有当很多人认同时,才会出台新法律。
  只有国家立法机构才有权制定新法律,即国会。国会实行两院制,即有两个分院,参议院和众议院,他们的权利是平分的。只有当两个议院都同意了,新法律才能正式颁布。
  当人们想要制定一项新法时,他们可以找到他们的州参议员或众议员,这个议员就会拟制一份提案,并编号发给那个议院的每一个代表。之后这份草案就会提交委员会分析讨论,必要时进行修改。然后委员会向这个议院宣布是否立案。
  接下来,这个议院会对这项法案进行讨论及投票表决。如果一个议院通过了,接着就转到另一个议院。例如,如果参议院通过了这项法案,就转到众议院表决。同样会有一个委员会会在投票表决之前对法案进行决策修改,如果第二个议院也通过了,那么这两个议院委员会就会聚到一起开会讨论这两套不同的方案,并协商取得一致性。
  当参议院和众议院都通过了最终稿之后,再递交总统,如果总统签署了,这项法案就正式颁布了。
   
Explanation:   
   Making a federal (or national) law in the United States is a complex (or complicated and not simple) process that takes a lot of time. This is good, because it means that the laws can’t be easily changed. New laws can be made only when a lot of people agree that they are a good idea. 
 
   Federal (or national) laws can be made only by the national legislature (or the part of the government that makes laws), which is known as Congress. Congress is a bicameral legislature, meaning that it has two chambers (or parts). The two parts are the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate and the House are equal partners, meaning that they have the same amount of power. A law cannot be enacted (or created) without the consent (or agreement) of both chambers. 
 
   When people want to create a new law, they speak with their senator or representative, who will then write a bill, which is a proposal or an idea for a new law. That bill is given a special number to identify it and then copies are made for all the people in that chamber. Then the bill is sent to a committee (or a small group of people working together for a specific purpose) that specializes in that topic. The committee discusses (or talks about) the bill and the committee can make changes to the bill if it wants to. Then it tells the full chamber what it thinks about whether the bill should become a law. 
 
   Next, the full chamber debates (or talks about the reasons for or against the bill) and votes on the bill. If the bill passes (or is approved) in one chamber, then it is sent to the other chamber. For example, if it passes in the Senate, then it is sent to the House of Representatives. Just like in the other chamber, a committee discusses the bill and might make changes before it is debated and voted on by the full chamber. If the second chamber also approves the bill, then committees from both chambers meet to work out the differences (or to find a way to agree) on the two different versions of the bill. 
 

   Once the final version of the bill is passed in both chambers, both the House and the Senate, it is sent to the president. If the president signs it, then the bill becomes a law.

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