2014.3.19 【英译中】翻译理论

发表于:2014-03-19 23:00 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

这是一篇关于翻译理论的小文章,大家可以学习了解一些翻译理论的知识,同时看看翻译的是否恰当。红色部分为我觉得不怎么好处理的地方,小伙伴们,快来说说你的看法吧~


Translation Theory

翻译理论

The study of proper principle of translation is termed as translation theory. *This theory, based on a solid foundation on understanding of how languages work, translation theory recognizes that different languages encode meaning in differing forms, yet guides translators to find appropriate ways of preserving meaning, while using the most appropriate forms of each language. Translation theory includes principles for translating figurative language, dealing with lexical mismatches, rhetorical questions, inclusion of cohesion markers, and many other topics crucial to good translation.*

对适当的翻译原则的研究称为翻译理论。这一理论是基于充分理解“语言是如何工作的”之上的。翻译理论承认不同的语言是以不同的形式编码意义的,同时指导译者找到适当的方法,用每种语言最合适的形式保留原义。翻译理论包括翻译比喻性语言原则、处理词汇不匹配原则、修辞问题包括衔接标记以及许多其他对做好翻译很关键的话题。

Basically there are two competing theories of translation. In one, the predominant purpose is to express as exactly as possible the full force and meaning of every word and turn of phrase in the original, and in the other the predominant purpose is to produce a result that does not read like a translation at all, but rather moves in its new dress with the same ease as in its native rendering. * In the hands of a good translator neither of these two approaches can ever be entirely ignored.

基本上,有两种对立的翻译理论。其中一种的主要目的是尽可能准确地表达原文中每个单词和词组的含义和力度;而另一种的主要目的是,使译文流畅无翻译痕迹,就像穿着新衣裳却像穿着旧衣一样舒适。在一个优秀的译者眼里,这两种方法都不能忽略。

Conventionally, it is suggested that in order to perform their job successfully, translators should meet three important requirements; they should be familiar with:

  • the source language
  • the target language
  • the subject matter

一般来说,为了能够做好翻译,译者应该达到三个重要要求,即他们应该熟悉:

  • 源语
  • 目的语
  • 主题

· 

Based on this premise, the translator discovers the meaning behind the forms in the source language and does his best to produce the same meaning in the target language - using the forms and structures of the target language. Consequently, what is supposed to change is the form and the code and what should remain unchanged is the meaning and the message. (Larson, 1984)

在这个前提下,译者充分理解源语语言形式下的含义,尽最大努力在目的语中用目的语的语言形式和结构表达出同样的意思。因此,只是改变了形式和编码,意思和信息保留不变。

One of the earliest attempts to establish a set of major rules or principles to be referred to in literary translation was made by French translator and humanist Étienne Dolet, who in 1540 formulated the following fundamental principles of translation, usually regarded as providing rules of thumb for the practicing translator:

在文学翻译中最早尝试建立一套翻译原则的人之一就是法国浪漫主义译者艾蒂安·多雷。1540年,他阐述了以下翻译原则,常被看作是为见习译者提供的经验法则。

The translator should understand perfectly the content and intention of the author whom he is translating. The principal way to reach it is reading all the sentences or the text completely so that you can give the idea that you want to say in the target language because the most important characteristic of this technique is translating the message as clearly and natural as possible. If the translation is for different countries, the translator should use the cultural words of that country.

译者应充分了解原文作者所要表达的内容和意图。要做到这一点就应通读全句或全文,这样你就能用源语来表达你想要表达的意思,因为这个技巧最重要的特点就是尽可能的把信息准确自然地翻译出来。如果译文面向不同国家,译者还应该使用那个国家的文化词汇。

The translator should have a perfect knowledge of the language from which he is translating and an equally excellent knowledge of the language into which he is translating. At this point the translator must have a wide knowledge in both languages for getting the equivalence in the target language, because the deficiency of the knowledge of both languages will result in a translation without logic and sense. 

译者对源语和目的语都应该有深入的了解。在这点上,译者要在两种语言上都有广博的知识,这样才能在目的语中找到合适的表达,因为无论是源语和目的语知识不够,都可能会导致译文无逻辑或者无意义。

The translator should avoid the tendency to translate word by word, because doing so is to destroy the meaning of the original and to ruin the beauty of the expression. This point is very important and one of which if it is translated literally it can transmit another meaning or understanding in the translation.

译者应避免逐字翻译因为这样做会破坏原意,破坏表达的美感。这点非常重要,因为如果照字面翻译很可能会在译文中传达另一个意思。

The translator should employ the forms of speech in common usage. The translator should bear in mind the people to whom the translation will be addressed and use words that can be easily understood. 

译者应该用常用的语言形式。译者应该时刻提醒自己译文的读者是谁,尽量使用通俗易懂的话。


最后编辑于:2014-03-19 23:02
分类: 英语
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