2014.3.21【英译中】019 参议员任期是多久?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-21 18:10 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
19. We elect a U.S. Senator for how many years?  
Answer:   
Six (6) 
19. 参议员任期是多久?
6年

  参议员任期六年,相互交错,这意味着他们不会同时开始和结束,故每隔两年改选约三分之一的席位。实行这种交错任期制度,就能保证总有一些资深参议员可以带资浅参议员。这保证了参议院的可持续性。
  在任何组织中,可持续性都是非常重要的,美国参议院也不例外。如果所有的参议员都同时开始和结束任期的话,所有新参议员就没人带了,可能没有或只有一小部分人知道怎么召开参议院会议。所有的参议员都要从头开始学习,这样就会影响参议院的正常有效运作。
  参议员之前是由国家立法委推选的。然而,从1913年开始,参议员就由每个州的公民直接选举了。一旦选定,在下次选举之前他或她可以行使参议员的职责6年。有些参议员在任期结束前就辞职了。目前为止发生过15起,最后一次是在1862年。从那以后,参议院曾尝试过辞退一些议员,但是那些议员通常在那之前就自行辞职了。
  由于参议员的辞职和死亡而产生空缺时,会特地举行一次选举来替补空位。通过这种方式选出的参议员会继续前任剩下的时间,可能就不满6年任期了。

Explanation:   
   U.S. senators serve (or work in their public position) for six-year terms that are staggered, which means they don’t all begin and end at the same time.  One-third of the senators are elected every two years. With staggered terms, there are always some senators who have experience and can guide the new senators. This gives the Senate continuity. 
 
   In any organization, continuity (or the way that something stays the same over time) is extremely important. The United States Senate is no exception (or no different). If all the senators started and ended their terms (or the period of time they work in their public position) at the same time, then all the new senators would begin at the same time and nobody, or only very few people, would know how Senate meetings should be.  All of the senators would be trying to learn their new job at the same time and the Senate would not run very smoothly or easily until they did. 
 
   State legislators (or people who make laws in the government at the state level) used to elect (or choose) senators. However, since 1913, senators have been elected directly by the votes of the citizens who live in their state. Once a senator is elected, he or she can serve for the full six years before having to run for election (or try to get the public position through votes) again. Sometimes, however, senators are expelled (or forced to leave) before their term ends. This has happened only 15 times so far and the last time was in 1862. Since then, the Senate has tried to expel some senators, but those senators have resigned (or chosen to leave that job) before the other senators could make them leave. 
 
   When a vacancy (or an open position) is available, maybe because a senator has resigned or died, there is usually a special election to find a new senator to represent that state. Senators who are elected this way finish the time left in the previous senator’s six-year term and usually do not serve the full six years.

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最后编辑于:2014-03-23 20:02
分类: 英语

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