2014.3.23【英译中】033谁来签署法案才具有法律效力?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-23 12:11 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
33. Who signs bills to become laws?  
Answer:   
The President 
33. 谁来签署法案才具有法律效力?
总统

  国会是美国国家立法机构。他们会花很多时间来探讨新的法案。有时成员们无法就法案的一些细节达成共识 ,这项法案就从此夭折了。但就算国会通过了这项法案的所有细节,还是没办法立法。大部分法案都要经过总统签署才会正式生效。
  一旦国会表决通过了一项法案,这项法案就被送去总统那边。总统有四种选择:第一,签署并正式立法。只有当总统觉得这是个非常不错的法案值得展示给美国民众时他才会这么做。
  第二,任由法案躺在自己的办公桌上,在10天内未对法案或决议文表示意见并交还国会,法案将自动成为法律。只有当总统觉得这项法案不怎么样,但也不想惹麻烦时,才会这么做。换言之,这项法案对他来说可有可无,不重要。
  第三,否决法案。总统否决了该法案,并将其退回国会,表示这项法案完全行不通,不能立法。这对国会来说影响很大,因为总统的否决意味着国会半数以上的反对票。在总统行使否决权后国会可以发起再审,并且必须获得三分之二以上的投票支持才可忽略总统的否决,正式立法。
  最后,总统可以行使口袋否决。只有当国会在会议晚期才把法案递交总统时才会发生这种情况,这时总统有10天时间来做出回应。但极有可能这期间国会就休会了,如果总统没法在这之前签署法案的话,该法案便会被废弃,而不是自动生效,这就叫做口袋否决。
Explanation:   
  Congress is the legislative or lawmaking part of the U.S. government. Congress spends a lot of time debating or talking about different bills (or ideas for new laws). Sometimes the members of Congress can’t agree on the details of a bill and it never becomes a law. But even when the members of Congress do agree on all the details of the bills, they still haven’t become law. Most bills need the president’s signature (or written name placed on the bill to show that it is approved) to become law. 
 
  Once Congress votes to make a bill become a law, the bill is sent to the president. The president then has four choices. First, the president can sign the bill to make it become a law. The president does this when he or she thinks that it is a very good idea and wants to show this to the American people. 
 
  The president’s second option or choice is to just let the bill sit on his desk without doing anything to it. Once 10 days pass (or go by), the bill automatically, without anyone doing anything, becomes a law even without the president’s signature. The president might do this when he or she doesn’t think that the bill is a great idea, but doesn’t want to create a lot of trouble either. In other words, the bill is something that is not very important to the president. 
 
  The third option that the president has is to veto the bill. By vetoing a bill, the president returns the bill to Congress, indicating (or showing) that the bill is a bad idea that should not become a law. This shows a big difference between Congress and the president, because the president is disagreeing with more than half of the members of Congress who had voted for the bill. Congress can decide to vote again, and if more than two-thirds (or 67%) of the members agree, they can override the president’s veto, making the bill become a law anyway. 
 
  Finally, the president’s fourth option when he receives a bill is a pocket veto. This happens when Congress passes a bill very late in its session (or the period of time when Congress meets). The president always has 10 days to act on (or respond to) bills, but it is possible that Congress’s session ends before those 10 days have passed. In this situation, if the president does not sign the bill, it does not automatically become a law, but instead is automatically vetoed through a pocket veto.

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