2014.3.26【英译中】034 谁可以否决法案?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-26 14:38 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
34. Who vetoes bills? 
Answer:
The President
34. 谁可以否决法案?
总统


  国会是美国的立法机构,但必须获得总统的支持。每次国会通过一项法案后都要递交总统签署。如果总统不同意,他或她可以否决这项法案,这样就不能立法了。如果国会坚持要立法,他们可以发起再审,只有当2/3的国会议员表决通过后,才能推翻总统的否决,不顾总统的意愿正式立法。
  那如果总统认为这项法案部分可取怎么办?美国的法案都是长而复杂的,有成百上千页来讨论不同的事情。总统可以只针对一部分进行否决吗?
  这个问题在20世纪90年代被提出来。许多国会议员希望总统拥有单项否决权,对整部法案的单项或一小部分进行否决。1996年国会通过《单项否决权法》,经克林顿总统签署成为法律。授权总统对无助于减少预算赤字的税赋法案和任何浪费性开支予以否决。克林顿总统多次使用该项权力。
  然而,国会中反对这项法律的议员认为这是违宪的,与美国最重要的法律文件《宪法》相违背。这件事呈递到美国最赋权力的最高法院,被判违宪。最高法院判定,依据宪法,总统必须通过或否决整部法案而不是一部分。因此1998年《单项否决权法案》被废除。克林顿是唯一一位使用过单项否决权的总统。
Explanation:
  Congress is the part of the U.S. government that is responsible for making laws. However, it cannot do it without the president’s help. Every time that the members of Congress agree on a bill (or an idea for a law), it has to be sent to the president for his or her approval. If the president does not think that the bill is a good idea, he or she can veto the bill so that it doesn’t become a law. If Congress still wants that bill to become a law, it can vote again and if two-thirds (or 67%) of the members agree, they can override the president’s veto so that the bill becomes a law even though the president doesn’t like it.
  But what happens when the president thinks that some parts of the bill are good but other parts are bad? U.S. bills can be very long, complex documents that have hundreds or thousands of pages and cover (or talk about) many different things. Can the president veto just one or a few things in a bill, but still have the rest of the bill become law?
  That question was being asked a lot in the mid-1990s. Many members of Congress wanted the president to have line-item veto power, or the ability to veto just single line items, or small parts, of a larger bill. In 1996, Congress passed a bill called the Line Item Veto Act of 1996. President Bill Clinton signed it and it became a law. With this law, the president could veto individual parts of appropriation bills, or bills about how the government should spend its money. President Clinton used this power a few times.

  However, the members of Congress who didn’t like this law thought that it was unconstitutional, or went against the United States’ most important legal document, the Constitution. The issue was presented to the Supreme Court, the most powerful court in the US., which decided that the line-item veto was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court believed that the way the Constitution is written, the president must approve or veto whole bills and not just parts of them. So in 1998 the Line Item Veto Act was repealed (or taken away so that it was not a law anymore). President Clinton was the only president who was ever able to make a line-item veto.


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