2014.3.26【英译中】005 我们是怎么称呼《宪法》的前10条修正案的?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-03-26 14:47 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
5. What do we call the first 10 amendments to the Constitution?
Answer:
The Bill of Rights
5. 我们是怎么称呼《宪法》的前10条修正案的?
《权利法案》,又译《人权法案》
    制定《宪法》期间,许多人对宪法是否真的保护公民权益提出质疑。因此,1789《宪法》一发布,第一届国会就提议了12条修正案来保护公民享有的自由和平等的权力。最终通过了10项修正案,后来被称为《权利法案》,就是基本权利清单。
    《权利法案》列出了一系列美国公民基本的权力和自由。例如,它保证我们的言论自由,人们可以谈论任何他们想说的话。还有宗教自由,人们可以自己选择宗教加入。《权利法案》规定美国公民可以选择陪审团判决,当你上法院时,可以请求由一群公民组成的陪审图来判定你是否犯法,而不是由法官一个人来执行判决。它同时规定警察在没有搜查证的情况下不能随便搜查公民的家,搜查证是针对特定场所的特殊许可证。
    《权利法案》同时限制酷刑和特殊刑法。酷刑是痛苦和不公平的,特殊刑法指的是非正常刑法。也就是说,犯罪刑法不能过于痛苦和奇怪,必须是正常的刑法。
     第二修正案颇有争议,因为美国人民意见都不统一。它允许人们携带武器来保护自己。近年来,非法持枪者日益增多。人们要求更加严格的枪支控制案来限制私人拥有枪支。但是另外一部分人表示枪支控制法违反第2条修正案。


Explanation:
   While the Constitution was being written, many people argued that it did not actually protect the rights (or freedoms) of citizens or protect citizens from having the government take away their rights. Because of this, immediately after the Constitution was ratified (or approved) in 1789, the First Congress proposed 12 amendments to the Constitution that would protect civil rights (or the rights that citizens have to social and political freedom and equality, and having the same opportunities as all other citizens). Ten of these Amendments were approved, and they became known as the Bill of Rights. “Bill” is an old word meaning a list, so the Bill of Rights is a list of a citizen’s basic rights. 
   The Bill of Rights includes a lot of rights and freedoms that are part of what it means to be an American. For example, it protects our freedom of speech–the right of people to say what they want. It also guarantees (or gives people the right to) freedom of religion, meaning that people can decide which religion they want to follow, or if they want to follow any at all. The Bill of Rights says that Americans have a right to trial by jury, meaning that when they go to court, a small group of citizens decides whether a person has done someth/4,ing against the law, instead of having just one person, the judge (or the head of the court), decide. The Bill of Rights also says that the police cannot go into an American’s home to look for something without a search warrant, which is specific permission for the police to search for something in a specific place, such as your home.
   The Bill of Rights also protects people from cruel and unusual punishment. Something that is cruel is painful or unfair. “Unusual” means not common or not normal. So the meaning here is that the punishment for a crime should not be too painful or strange, and that it should be a normal punishment for that kind of crime.

   The Second Amendment is controversial and is argued about because people in the U.S. have many strong opinions about it. It protects people’s right to keep and bear arms (or carry weapons, such as guns), so that they can protect themselves. Recently in the U.S., having a gun without getting permission first has increased a lot. Many people have argued for stronger gun control laws so that it would be more difficult for people to own guns. But other people say that gun control laws violate (or do something that is not allowed by) the Second Amendment.

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