2014.4.2【英译中】037 司法系统是做什么的?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-04-02 11:10 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
37. What does the judicial branch do?
Answer:
• Reviews laws
• Explains laws
• Resolves disputes (disagreements)
• Decides if a law goes against the Constitution
37. 司法系统是做什么的?
审查法律
解释法律
解决纷争
违宪审查权


  美国政府分为三部分:行政系统实施法律,立法系统制定法律,司法系统审查法律。一般来说行政机关和立法机关可以相安无事一起工作。立法机关制定出新的法律,行政机关负责实施。然而,总有些人不赞成这项法律,认为其违宪,这时司法机关就要出来解释了。
  司法机构由很多法院组成。法院就是制定合法决策的地方,特别是在裁定一个人是否犯法及解释这部法律的初始意义上。《宪法》建立司法系统时就建立了美国最具权力的法院—最高法院。自那以后,国会就设立了很多等级相对低一点的专门法院来受理案件。包括裁定个人或公司是否偷税漏税的税务法院、裁定个人或公司是否可以宣布破产的破产法院。司法机关需要各种各样的法院来帮助最高法院处理案件。
  司法部室美国政府用来执行正义的大部门。这个部门还要打击及控制犯罪率来维护国家安全,但它却不属于司法机关,而属于联邦政府的行政机关。
Explanation:
  The U.S. government has three branches (or parts): the executive branch which makes sure that people follow laws, the legislative branch which makes new laws, and the judicial branch which interprets laws (or decides what the laws mean and how they should be applied). Normally the executive and legislative branches can work together without any trouble. The legislative branch makes new laws and the executive branch enforces them. However, sometimes people don’t agree on what the laws mean. They think the laws are unclear or unconstitutional (or not in agreement with the U.S. Constitution). When that happens, someone needs to be able to say what the law really means and that is exactly what the judicial branch does.
  The judicial branch comprises (or is made up of) many courts. A court is a place where legal decisions are made, especially about whether or not someone has broken a law or what that law really means in the first place. When the Constitution created the judicial branch, it created the Supreme Court, which is the highest and most important court in the country. Since then, Congress has created many lower courts (or less powerful courts) that hear cases (or decide on legal issues) in many special areas. These lower courts include the tax courts, which decide whether or not people and businesses are evading (or not paying) taxes, and the bankruptcy courts, which decide whether people and businesses can declare bankruptcy (or not pay back the money they owe to other people and organizations because they don’t have any money left). The judicial branch needs to have many different courts because there are too many cases to send all of them to the Supreme Court.

  The Department of Justice is a very large part of the U.S. government that tries to get justice (or fairness in the law) for all Americans. The Department also tries to prevent and control crime (or things like murders (killings) and theft) to make the United States safer. The Department of Justice is not part of the judicial branch, however. It is part of the executive branch of the national government.

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