2014.4.4【英译中】039 最高法院有几位大法官?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-04-04 10:40 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
39. How many justices are on the Supreme Court?
Answer:
Nine (9)
39. 最高法院有几位大法官?
9位
  
  最高法院作为联邦政府最重要的司法机构,自1790年成立之初已经历众多改变。最高法院刚开始只有6位大法官,这个数字变了6次,但1869年以来就一直保持在9位。
  最高法院大法官都是被任命的。他们最初是被总统提名的,然后经过参议院投票表决。法官不会被频繁否决,事实上,目前为止只有12个否决的案例,其他的都通过了提名。9位法官中的领导就叫做首席大法官,其他8位为联合大法官。
  最高法院法官一旦上任,就是终身制,再也不能辞退。同时,他们的工资是不能被裁减的。这样一来,法官判决时就没有后顾之忧了,能够完全地公正判决,而不会受当权者的影响。
  由于这种终身任命制,最高法院更新换代非常慢。更新率指的就是在组织中老的成员离开,新的成员进来代替他们。大部分法官都要做好多好多年直到他们死亡或退休。自1790年来共出了16位首席大法官和97未联合法官。他们平均都任职15年,这保证了最高法院的可延续性。
Explanation:
  The Supreme Court, which is the most important court in the United States, has changed in many ways since it was first founded (or created) in 1790. When the Supreme Court first began, there were only six justices (or the judges who work on the Supreme Court). This number changed six times, but since 1869 there have always been nine justices. 
  Supreme Court justices are appointed (or given their positions by people who work in politics). First they are nominated, which is when the president selects or picks them and says that this is the person who should get the job. Then they are rejected or accepted by the U.S. Senate. Justices are not rejected very often. In fact, only 12 nominees have ever been rejected as Supreme Court justices. All the others have been confirmed (or approved when at least half of the Senate members voted for them). The leader of these nine justices is called the Chief Justice; the other eight are called Associate Justices.
  When justices are confirmed (or approved), then they are appointed for life, meaning that once they become a justice they can never be forced to leave.
Also, their salary (or the amount of money they make each year) can never be reduced (or made less). Because of this, the justices never have to worry about losing their jobs or losing money if they vote the wrong way or make a decision the president or other people don’t like. This is a good thing, because it means that they can rule (or make legal decisions) based on their beliefs and not to please the current president.

  Because the justices serve (or work in this public job) for life, the Supreme Court has a very low turnover rate. The turnover rate is how often old people leave and new people take their place in an organization. Most of the justices serve (or work) for many, many years, often until they die or decide that they want to retire (or stop working to enjoy their old age). Since 1790, there have been only 16 Chief Justices and 97 Associate Justices. On average (or typically), they serve 15 years. Because of this, the Supreme Court has a lot of continuity (or consistency over time).

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