2014.4.7【英译中】040 美国现任首席大法官是谁?

ausko (红果子猫) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-04-07 11:55 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
40. Who is the Chief Justice of the United States?  
Answer:   
John Roberts (John G. Roberts, Jr.) 
40. 美国现任首席大法官是谁?
约翰·罗伯茨


  最高法院是美国最富权力的司法机构,因此最高法院的首席大法官就理所当然地成为联邦政府的最高审判长。
  首席大法官和联合法官们在审理诉讼时的权力是相同的。当然,首席大法官也有其他的责任。
  当9位法官一同在讨论案件时,是由首席大法官主导的。首席大法官先发言,这就会影响到其他法官的决定。首席大法官还要为每次周例会制定议程,决定该接些什么案件。 
  当就一个案件投票表决时,首席大法官和其他法官一样都只有一票。然而他可以指定谁来写法院判决书。由于首席大法官很清楚每个法官的写作风格和倾向,他可以指定某个人来写出他要的判决书来。这就是首席大法官的影响力,其他律师和法官会以最高法院的判决为参照来处理其他案子。
  当总统上任时,总统必须跟着首席大法官宣读誓言。
  首席大法官还必须主持总统的弹劾审判。当国会觉得总统表现极差或做了什么伤风败俗的事情,无法再履职时,就会发起弹劾审来判剥夺总统权力。
  
Explanation:   
  The Supreme Court is the highest (or most important) court in the United States, so it makes sense that the leader of the Supreme Court, known as the Chief Justice, is the highest (or most important) judge in the U.S. government. 
 
  The Chief Justice has all the same responsibilities as the Associate Justices for hearing cases (or listening to lawsuits and stating a legal opinion). However, the Chief Justice also has many other responsibilities. 
 
  When the nine justices of the Supreme Court discuss (or talk about) cases, the Chief Justice must lead the discussion. The Chief Justice speaks first, and this gives him or her the power to influence (or affect) the discussion. The Chief Justice also makes the agenda (or plan for what will be discussed) for each weekly meeting where the justices decide which cases they are going to hear.  
 
  When the justices vote on a case, the Chief Justice’s vote is equal to (or has the same importance as) the other eight votes. However, the Chief Justice gets to decide who will write the court’s opinion (or a written document explaining what the court decided and why). Because the Chief Justice knows each justice’s writing style and opinions, he or she can pick the one who will write an opinion that describes the case as he or she would want it to be described. That is an important way for the Chief Justice to influence the work of the Supreme Court, since lawyers and other judges often go back to read the Supreme Court’s opinions and use them to make other legal decisions later. 
 
  When the U.S. president is inaugurated (or first begins working as the president), the Chief Justice states the oath (or promises that are made before entering a public office) that the new president must repeat. 
 
  The Chief Justice also must preside over (or lead) impeachment trials for the U.S. president. An impeachment trial happens when the members of Congress believe that the president is doing his or her job very poorly or has done something very wrong and want to vote to have the job of president taken away from him or her. 

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