2014.04.07【英译中】Linguistics 02

桃子Lynn (艾羽) 译坛新秀
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发表于:2014-04-07 17:28 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Divisions based on nonlinguistic factors studied

  非语言因素基础上的分歧研究

   Alongside the structurally motivated domains of study are other fields of linguistics. These fields are distinguished by the kinds of nonlinguistic factors that they consider:

  与以结构研究为主的领域并驾齐驱的是语言学的其他领域。这些领域是由它们所涉及的非语言因素的种类来区别的。

· Applied linguistics, the study of language-related issues applied in everyday life, notably language policies, planning, and education. (Constructed language fits under Applied linguistics.)

应用语言学,与日常生活相关的语言研究,尤其是语言政策,规划和教育。(新的语言须符合应用语言学。

· Biolinguistics,the study of natural as well as human-taught communication systems in animals, compared to human language.

生物语言学,研究自然以及与人类语言相比的人类训练动物的交流系统。

· Clinical linguistics, the application of linguistic theory to the field of Speech-Language Pathology.

临床语言学,语言学理论在语言病理学中的应用。

· Computational linguistics, the study of linguistic issues in a way that is 'computationaly responsible', i.e., taking careful note of computational consideration of algorithmic specification and computational complexity, so that the linguistic theories devised can be shown to exhibit certain desirable computational properties implementations.

计算机语言学,以“程序负责”的方式来研究语言学问题。即,仔细记录计算考虑中的算法和计算的复杂性,使语言学理论设计可以显示某些理想的计算性能的实现。

· Developmental linguistics, the study of the development of linguistic ability in individuals, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood.

发展语言学,研究个人语言能力的发展,尤其童年期间的语言习得。

· Evolutionary linguistics, the study of the origin and subsequent development of language by the human species.

演化语言学,研究人类种族语言的起源及发展。

· Historical linguistics or diachronic linguistics, the study of language change over time.

历史语言学,亦称越时语言学,研究语言的变化。

· Language geography, the study of the geographical distribution of languages and linguistic features.

地理语言学,研究语言的地理分布和其语言特征。

· Linguistic typology, the study of the common properties of diverse unrelated languages, properties that may, given sufficient attestation, be assumed to be innate to human language capacity.

类型语言学,研究各种不相关语言的共同性质,那些共同性质也许可以充分证明,人类的语言能力是天生的。

· Neurolinguistics, the study of the structures in the human brain that underlie grammar and communication.

神经语言学,研究人类大脑中成为语法和交流基础的结构。

· Psycholinguistics, the study of the cognitive processes and representations underlying language use.

心理语言学,研究语言使用基础上的认知过程和表现。

· Sociolinguistics, the study of variation in language and its relationship with social factors.

社会语言学,研究语言的变异和其与社会因素的关系。

· Stylistics, the study of linguistic factors that place a discourse in context.

文体学,研究语境中的语言因素。

Semiotics is not a discipline within linguistics; rather, it investigates the relationship between signs and what they signify more broadly. From the perspective of semiotics, language can be seen as a sign or symbol, with the world as its representation.  (Total 17)

符号学不是语言学内的一门学科;它更多的是研究符号及其意义的关系。从符号学的角度看,语言可以被看作是一个标志和符号,整个世界都是它的表现。

 



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