发表于:2014-04-09 16:58 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of theUnited States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a decline of the traditional work-moral values. Ten years ago young people were hardworking and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being, but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people don't know where they should go next.


The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male-dominated job market have limited the opportunities of teenagers who are already questioning the heavy personal  sacrifices involved in climbingJapan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with school life, compared with 67.2 percent of students in theUnited States. In addition, far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed.


While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics, Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and self-expression. "Those things that do not show up in the test scores personality, ability, courage or humanity are completely ignored," says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party's education committee. "Frustration against this kind of
thing leads kids to drop out and run wild
." Last yearJapan experienced 2125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War Ⅱ had weakened the "Japanese morality of respect for parents".


But that may have more to do with Japanese life-styles. "InJapan," says educator Yoko Muro, "it's never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can endure."With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent ofJapan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, two-generation households. Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels to and from work) and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well below that of theUnited States, has increased by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly one-quarter.

但是,那样更可能是与日本人的生活方式有关。“在日本,”教育家Yoko Muro 说,“是否下享受你的工作和生活永远不是个问题,而是你能承受多大的的负荷。”随着经济增长越来越集中化;1.19亿人口之中的满76%的日本公民住在城市中,他们已经抛弃了社区和几代人住在一起的模式,转而支持与老一辈隔开的两代人之家。居住在城市的日本人长期忍受着漫长的上下班(从家里到工作的地方)和拥挤的居住条件,但是随着老的家庭群体的家庭观的弱化,才开始体现出这种不舒服的结果。在过去十年里,日本的离婚率虽然远远低于美国的离婚率,但是仍然增长超过了50%,并且自杀率也增长了近1/4



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