2014.04.12【英译汉】Documentaries Have Always Been Fake

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发表于:2014-04-12 16:57 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Part I


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Documentaries Have Always Been Fake
Posted by Richard Brody

The Film Society of Lincoln Center’s extraordinary series “Art of the Real,” which runs from today through April 26th (and which I write about in the magazine this week), is nourished by deep roots extending to the very source of the history of cinema. Already in 1895, the primordial documentary, the Lumière brothers’ film of employees leaving the company’s factory, was staged by the filmmakers. And the film that turned their invention, the “cinématographe,” into a terrifying spectacle, “Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat,” contains the definitive and enduring gesture of acknowledged mutual implication, the glance at the lens of the camera. From the start, the documentary cinema was infused with French aestheticism and French psychology. The documentary was defined not as a naïve and spontaneous capture of preëxisting reality but, rather, as a creation, a work of art.
林肯中心的电影协会从今日起至 4月26日将举办“真实的艺术”特别系列展示(本周我将就此在杂志上报道此事)。这一系列背景深厚,其根源可追溯到电影史之发源。早在1895年的原始纪录片,卢米埃尔兄弟的电影描述一群从工厂下班的工人,就是由电影制作人员表演的。然后这部电影将他们的发明,“cinématographe (电影艺术)”,变成了《火车进站》中让当时的人们害怕的场景,其中包含了对于双方都能理解的暗示应如何使用电影语言进行定义和保留,以及如何运用电影镜头。从一开始,纪录片电影就被注入法式的唯美主义和心理。纪录片从一开始的定义就不是简洁的、自发的对现实进行捕捉,而是一种艺术创作,是艺术品。

So it’s no surprise that the virtual godfather of “Art of the Real” is a French filmmaker, Jean Rouch (1917-2004), one of whose films, “Jaguar,” is featured in the series. Rouch (whom I wrote about here a couple of years ago) is one of the great secret influences of the modern cinema. He started as an ethnographic filmmaker working mainly in Africa, and his chosen subject and field of activity provided an angle of insight into both the broadest range of experience and into his own medium. Rouch became the exemplary reflexive filmmaker, and his view of the cinema began with the notion of performance. In “Les Maîtres Fous” (The Mad Masters), from 1955, he filmed members of a Ghanaian sect whose rites involved elaborate, politically influenced play-acting. Soon thereafter, in his seminal feature, “Moi, Un Noir” (Me, a Black Man), from 1958, he recruited a group of Abidjan residents, who had emigrated from Niger, to act out scenes from their own lives—which they did not merely under pseudonyms but in the guise of movie actors and character (named Edward G. Robinson, Eddie Constantine, Dorothy Lamour, and Tarzan). Filming with lightweight equipment and no synch sound, he then brought them into a studio to add dialogue that, with the lapse of time, also became a retrospective commentary on their own lives.
所以,“真实的艺术”特别系列展示的教父——法国导演让·鲁什( 1917-2004 ),他的电影《美洲豹》也在展映之列就不奇怪了。鲁什(我几年前曾在此写过关于他的一篇文章)是现代电影的神秘影响之一。作为一名人类学电影人,他开始主要在非洲工作,所选择的主题和领域为其从最广泛意义上的经验与他自己的媒体提供了内部视角。鲁什成为典型的自反电影人,他的电影观点始于表演的概念。在“Les Maîtres Fous” 《通灵仙师》(1955)一片中 ,他拍摄一个加纳教派,其仪式包含了复杂的、深受政治影响的戏剧表演。此后不久,在他独创性的电影 “Moi, Un Noir” 《我,一个黑人》(1958),他招募了一群从尼日尔移民过来的阿比让居民,来表演那些生活镜头,他们不光有了影片中的假名字,还假冒起电影演员和角色(名字有:爱德华·G·罗宾逊,埃迪·康斯坦丁,多萝西·拉穆尔和塔尔散)。电影用轻型的设备拍摄,没有同期录音,然后导演把电影带进工作室加入对话,最后随着时间的推移,这些对话成了对于自己生活的回顾性评论。

Rouch pursued a similar strategy in “Jaguar”; its filming, from 1954, predated both of those works. It’s the story of three men—a shepherd, a fisherman, and a “public writer” or clerk—who travel from their home village in Niger to seek work in the British colony called the Gold Coast (now Ghana). Rather, Rouch worked with them in the reconstruction of their journey, and later showed them the silent footage so that they could record their commentary on it. The methods of “Jaguar,” though, remain somewhat under the surface. Its element of reconstruction and self-conscious performance is subordinated to the unity of its narrative, whereas in “Moi, Un Noir”—and even more radically in his next feature, “The Human Pyramid,” which features the performers watching their movie together and discussing it onscreen—it’s in the foreground.

最后编辑于:2014-04-13 11:05
分类: 英语
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