2014.6.21 [英译汉]伽利略错过的重大发现

yokuhama (雨月) 译坛新秀
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发表于:2014-06-21 12:26 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

About 350 years ago Galileo made a telescope and looked through it at the sun. What he saw both surprised and frightened him, for he saw dark spots on the sun which at once suggested to him that God had not made the world quite as perfect as he had previously believed. He hesitated to make his discovery known. Meanwhile other scientists noticed the same lack of solar perfection and proclaimed (宣布) the fact.

350年前,伽利略只做了一个望远镜,并用它来观察太阳。当他发现太阳上的黑点时深感震惊,他立刻想到世界并非如他以前所想,是被上帝完美的创造。他对于公布这个发现犹犹豫豫,然而这期间其他科学家发现了相同的太阳缺陷,并公布了这个事实。

But Galileo continued his observations and was soon rewarded with another discovery. Fixing his attention on a single sunspot (太阳黑子) group, he noticed that in a few days it had moved in position, just as if the sun itself were turning. Afterwards he found a sunspot group which lived long enough to disappear from view on the western limb (边缘) of the sun, to re-appear on its eastern limb, and finally to regain its old position. This led him to conclude that the sun itself was rotating and that the time it took to make one complete turn was about twenty-five to twenty-seven days. Actually we know from the drawings which Galileo made of sunspots that there must have been quite a lot of them at the time of his observations in the years 1611 and 1612. If he had gone on making his drawings in the years that immediately followed, we know that he would almost certainly have noticed that sunspots were becoming fewer and smaller. But he became interested in other things and so he failed to recognize that there is a kind of long-term cycle in sunspot activity, the sunspots increasing and decreasing as the years go on. Later this discovery of the sunspot activity was made by one of the most patient observers in the history of science, a German chemist, Charles Schwabe.

但伽利略继续了他的观测,并很快有了新的发现。它注意到在几天的时间内,一个太阳黑子群在移动,就如同太阳本身在移动一样。知否他发现一个黑子群在太阳的西侧停留了足够长的时间,之后重新出现在东侧,最后又回到了原来的位置。这一事实使他确信了太阳本身是自转的,并且自转周期是25-27天。事实上我们根据伽利略绘制的太阳黑子图,可以知道在他进行观测的1611年和1612年,有大量的太阳黑子出现。如果他在之后的几年里继续观测,他会发现太阳黑子变得更少更小。可惜由于他之后兴趣转移到了其他东西上,所以他未能发现太阳活动的长期循环规律,太阳黑子其实是随着年份不断增减的。后来,黑子活动的周期规律被历史上最有耐心的观测者之一的德国化学家查尔斯·许伟勃
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